Providing water and proper sanitation to poor communities by 2015 is one of the United Nations targets for this millennium. In South Africa many communities aspire to waterborne sanitation. However, there is a technology gap for decentralized and sustainable waterborne sanitation systems capable of treating domestic wastewater (Foxon et al., 2006). Although domestic wastewater is more commonly treated using aerobic processes, anaerobic processes may be more appropriate for decentralized applications since they do not require aeration. Research is currently being undertaken to understand the behavior of a combined ABR-MBR unit for treating domestic wastewater. In this study, the anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) was investigated by analyzing physico-chemical and biochemical data from experiments on a laboratory-scale ABR. This anaerobic reactor was treating complex particulate wastewater made up of sludge from the ventilated improved pit latrine toilets (known as VIP sludge). The main focus of this study was to establish the relationship between the increasing organic loading rates and the effluent characteristics (such as chemical oxygen demand: COD and extrapolymeric substances.
The human adaptive immune system serves as the primary defense against pathogens. While the human adaptive immune response is powered by many components, the Major Histocompatibility Class II (MHCII) molecules lie at the heart of the machinery of the immune system. MHCII display of antigens triggers a cascade of events leading to the immune response. Lack of MHCII expression causes severe immunodeficiency disorders, whereas overproduction of these molecules can cause a variety of autoimmune diseases. The production of MHCII molecules is regulated by a multi-protein complex that includes the Regulatory Factor X (RFX) protein complex, which is comprised of three subunits, RFX5, RFXAP, and RFXB. Mutations or deletions in any RFX subunit that prevents the formation of the MHCII enhanceosome abolishes MHCII expression. A better understanding of how the RFX complex assembles will provide insight into the rational design of novel immunosuppressive therapeutic agents. Our structural analysis of the RFX complex elucidates this complex formation, in efforts to move towards this therapeutic goal.
Water remains a critical resource for sustained well being of its citizens. Sustainable development, of which reuse of wastewater is an essential part, permits a balanced management of water resources while contributing to the maintenance of quality standards. To reuse wastewater and maintain the quality of water bodies, wastewater must be treated before discharge. MBRs are ready to maintain water sustainability with small footprints.Introduction of media into MBR, not only further reduces footprints but also supports denitrifying bacteria and as a result the total nitrogen removal can be enhanced. This book provides a complete insight into the attached growth MBR (AG-MBR) using sponge as media. AG-MBR setup, materials used, methodology adopted and results are discussed in this book.
This book is a reference source on evaluate of the performance of the anaerobic migrating blanked reactor (AMBR) and anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) in the treatment of nitroorganic compounds. This book consists of five chapters. Chapter One – Introduction : The Objective and Scope of the Study, The Novelties of the Study; Chapter Two - Literature Review: Nitroaromatic Compounds, Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR), Anaerobic Migrating Blanked Reactor (AMBR); Chapter Three - Materials and Methods: Experimental System, Seed of Reactors, Analytical Methods, Operation Conditions, Kinetic Approaches in Anaerobic Continuous Studies; Chapter Four - Results and Discusions: Batch Studies, Continuous Studies, Determination of Kinetic Constants, Process Economy; Chapter Five - Conclusions
Membrane bioreactor is an innovative technology for Wastewater treatment. The book provides in-depth understanding of Membrane Bioreactor technology for wastewater treatment and reuse. The objective of the research was to mitigate fouling in membrane bioreactors using biofilm carriers; Sponge was used as moving media. Background theory is discussed in Chapter 1 which provides the research objectives achieved. Chapter 2 provides basic insight of the MBR technology, membrane fouling mechanism, factors and mitigation approaches. Chapter 3 provides the detailed methodology applied to achieve research objectives, the protocols followed to determine parameters pertinent to MBR performance and operation. Chapter 4 provides the results obtained. Chapter 5 provides the conclusions drawn and recommendations for further study. This book is a useful tool for students and professionals having interest in Membrane Bioreactor and wastewater treatment.
Human activities, particularly agriculture and urbanization, have led to increased nitrogen and phosphorus discharge to inland water systems. This condition leads nutrient enrichment which causes eutrophication. Eutrophication can profoundly alter the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems, potentially endangering human health, biodiversity and ecosystem sustainability. Moreover, phosphorus which is vital for life and fertilizer industry will be exhausted shortly in the near future and become a major challenge for the global society. Therefore, both nitrogen and phosphorus in wastewater should be properly treated before discharged to the water environment. In general,this book was designed for sustainable nutrient recovery and removal from wastewater using a novel Fluidized Bed Reactor-Membrane Bioreactor (FBR-MBR) combo system. The specific objectives focus on developing FBR that efficiently recover phosphorus as struvite at low and high phosphorus concentration, combing the FBR system with MBR system targeting nitrogen and COD removals.
Short text Textile industrial wastewater effluent varies greatly in characteristics within a plant, within the same process and from a time to another. A rigid process treatment to remove colour and organic pollutants cannot be achievable since the textile wastewater varies in colour in any process, such as 457 to 6175 PtCo. Having different, easily controlled and successful processes that match with the different strengths of textile wastewater is the best way to remove colour and organic pollutants at any strength of textile wastewater.This book gives an overview of textile wastewater treatment options available. Biological treatment and advanced oxidation processes are discussed. In this book, colour and organic removals from real textile wastewater in a continuous process using an integrated system of activated sludge and advanced oxidation processes was studied. Coupled system of biological and advanced oxidation process is proved capable in removing colour and organic pollutants from real textile wastewater of different strengths. This book is useful for students and practitioners in the field. It helps in designing and developing a textile wastewater treatment plant.
The increasing demand for water in the arid and semi-arid regions has resulted in the emergence of wastewater application for agriculture. Using treated wastewater as marginal quality water in agriculture is a justified practice, yet care should be taken to minimize adverse environmental impacts and to prevent soil deterioration. Therefore, there is an urgent need to conserve and protect fresh water resources and to use the water of lower quality for irrigation. The use of treated wastewater for irrigation could be one of the main options to develop water resources in the Gaza Strip as it represents an additional marginal and reliable water resources. This book is divided into five chapters contains an introduction that gives an overview about book,objectives,and summarized methodology.In addition to an overview about wastewater reuse,the importance of wastewater reuse, Palestinian experiences of reusing treated wastewater, wastewater reuse in agriculture,wastewater reuse in the Gaza Strip, benefits and risks of wastewater reuse on agriculture,and regulations of treated wastewater. Also it presents the results and adiscussion of soil & water chemical analysis, and plant analyses.
•Dr. mohamed Sabry El Morsy an electromechanical specialist with more than 12 years experience in the design, installation, commissioning and testing of electromechanical equipment for water and waste treatment plants, boosting stations. •Over 5 years experience with development projects funded by International Finance Institutions (IFI) such as the World Bank and the KFW in Egypt where he conducted several technical studies and supervised the implementation of mechanical equipment in several water and wastewater treatment plants. •Involved in design of tender documentation and tendering of water and sanitation projects •Earned an excellent experience with industrial codes and other international standards applied for mechanical equipment, such as the Egyptian codes, ASME, AWWA, and CEMA standards. •An extensive experience in 3D modelling using various modelling software. •Experience in Design & Operation of Water Treatment Plant; Plants and facilities layout design •Experience in Operation Research and Project Management; Sound and vibration measurement & Analysis •Participating as instructor and trainer in series of engineering training courses and technical assistance.
Most of the physical phenomenon that occurs in nature or in systems engineered by humans, do not present the ideal case scenarios usually dealt with in the classrooms. Chemical industry is rich in diverse applications that have evolved overtime through human experimentation and experience and have eluded the complete understanding possible within the known boundaries of science. It is a constant endeavour of computational scientists to bring these phenomena within the reach of science and make accurate predictions of the system behaviour over an extended period into future. This treatise is one such humble attempt at bringing the ever confounding physical environment we live and interact with, into comprehension. This book is targeted towards the computational scientists working in the area of computational physics and numerical analysis. It starts with the first principles of conservation and develops a numerical technique to solve the fully transient coupled partial differential equations describing motion of solids in fluids. It also presents a simple approach to collision modeling between rigid bodies and practical application of the method in solving real life problems.
The Present work deals with a study that involves examining the efficacy of introducing reverse osmosis (RO) process in distillery wastewater treatment as an alternative polishing treatment for the ultimate objective of planning zero discharge from ETP system. It specifically studies alternative systems viz., ferti-irrigation, biocomposting without RO and biocomposting with RO treatment system after anaerobic treatment for a distillery of capacity 120 KLD for comparing other alternatives in vague. The operating costs for ferti-irrigation, biocomposting without RO and biocomposting with RO treatment system for distillery of capacity 120 KLD are calculated and compared. The operating cost per m3 of effluent for aerobic treatment followed by ferti-irrigation is 98 to 113 Rs./m3 of effluent, for RO system is approximately 29 Rs./m3 of effluent, for biocomposting is 99.00 Rs./m3 of effluent and therefore, for RO plus biocomposting it is approximately 128 Rs./m3 for getting zero discharge. On the whole, this study brings out that reverse osmosis could be optimally employed for achieving zero discharge for ensuring environmental regulations for distillery industry.
To have effective production planning and control, it is necessary to calculate the reliability and maintenance of a production system as a whole. However, most of the previous approaches have neglected these concerns or used rough rules of thumbs, and just a few pieces of research have employed programming techniques, but with limited application to practical cases. Conversely, the present work provides an integrated methodology that includes maintenance and failure situations during the optimization of the design and operating variables of industrial utility systems. In the case of an existing subset, the procedure can establish the operating conditions together with the maintenance scheduling of every piece of equipment.
Breakage of particulate materials is an essential process in many industries. Despite its prevalence, size reduction is one of the most inefficient unit operations in the collection of particulate processing operations. In this work, the breakage of granular materials in a batch ball mill, a commonly encountered industrial system, was investigated using computational and experimental techniques. Investigations using the Discrete Element Method (DEM) and a bench-top ball mill explore the dynamic interplay between energy input, particle motion, particle selection and, ultimately, the size reduction process. A technique known as the Attainable Region (AR) approach is used to determine and select optimal conditions to maximize efficient particle breakage. Findings presented in this work contribute to the understanding of granular behavior in size reduction environments. Improved understanding of the particle breakage phenomenon will contribute to the development of more robust models and lead to improved energy efficiency and reduced operational costs in the industrial processing of granular materials
Models of real systems are of fundamental importance in virtually all disciplines. Models can be useful for system analysis, i.e. for gaining a better understanding of the system. Models make it possible to predict or simulate a system's behavior. In engineering, models are required for the design of new processes and for the analysis of existing processes. Advanced techniques for the design of controllers, optimization, supervision, fault detection and diagnosis components are also based on models of processes. Modeling and identification of systems are of fundamental importance, and the quality of the model typically determines an upper bound on the quality of the final problem solution. As a consequence, a strong demand for advanced modeling and identification schemes arises. Moreover every model is developed as a problem dependent solution, in other words, many aspects of a system can be modeled and on the basis of the specific problem a model is determined.
Increased industrial activity has created an undesirable chemical pollution in air, water, and soil. Nowadays, around 1.2M tones and more than 10,000 different synthetic dyes and pigments are produced annually world-wide and used extensively in dye and printing industries. It is estimated that about 10-15% are lost in industrial effluents. Industrial waste water may additionally contain streams heavy loads of metals and organic compounds. The release of those colored waste water in the environment is a considerable source of non-aesthetic pollution, since the presence of small amount of dyes (below 1 ppm) is clearly visible. The challenges in treating wastewater are dependent on the origin of water and hence, the degradation of these dyes becomes crucial. Chemical oxidation of different dyes in wastewater is an effective method to remove it without further environmental problems. Photocatalysis is a rapidly developing field of research for a wide range of industrial applications, especially to degrade many kind of dyes. In this book, it will be explained a novel Titanium dioxide composite for photocatalytic waste water treatment.