Locusts and grasshoppers (Acridoidea : Orthoptera) constitute an economically important group of Orthopterous pests and are well known for their destructiveness all over the world.They cause considerable damage to agricultural crops, pastures and forests. Locusts and grasshoppers have invaded green crops from the earliest days to present time. Locusts are the main pests in countries bordering deserts. They are distributed throughout the world. The importance of Acridoidea in agricultural productivity is well established.While on one hand the plant protection workers are dependent on the correct identification of pest/parasite for any success in crop management, on the other hand the ecologists working at the ecosystem level,community level or below, are solely dependent on good taxonomic information, as ecologists study population changes in different habitats or seasons for differences in community structure, or concentrate on ecological processes and taxa involved.It is essential that the basic data on living organism be accurate.It is in the light of the above statement that the book would be immense help to researcher as well as students beginning their career in Acridology.
A central problem in ecology is to identify and understand patterns in the distribution and abundance of species. Widespread species are generally locally abundant, and have populations that fluctuate than scarce, geographically restricted species. This book represents the work that has immense application in biosystematics and will greatly helpful in offering economic solution for grasshopper ecology and identification. In this book, the research work involving the survey the acridoidea fauna in agro-ecosystems, quantify the diversity and abundance of the grasshopper population, bionomics of the surface grasshopper (Chrotogonus trachypterus) and kharif grasshopper (Hieroglyphus nigrorepletus) and the effect of food plants on the growth and development of grasshoppers. The information contained in this book can be exploited by taxonomy and ecology scientist for survey, identification and bionomics of grasshoppers. We hope, this book will helpful as a base for future ecology and identification of grasshoppers.
The Tapkeshweri Hill Range fall in the southern direction of Bhuj city of Kachchh region is a unique location which is enriched with the occurrence of diverse floral and faunal species. Hence in the present book, the attempt was made to know the quantitative and qualitative status. the present book also highlights various threats to the biodiversity as well as it also recommended some conservation measures to retains the unique biodiversity of Tapkeshweri Hill Range.
The northern region of India comprising the states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Punjab, Haryana, Delhi and Uttar Pradesh had been explored for the insect pests belonging to the order Lepidoptera through extensive and intensive field surveys. These field surveys had been conducted over different seasons on all the vegetable crop groups in the entire region so as to being out the species, population and ecological diversity. The field surveys had covered 109 localities in the entire region and throughout the length and breadth, over 49 districts in the seven states. The faunistic surveys had revealed that there are 49 species, and their diversity is enormous not only in terms of species but also their populations. It is also evident that the results of the study will be applicable not only to the northern region of India but also the whole of India and also other parts of the world. All species had been reoriented towards the salient taxonomic details along with descriptions. The study comprises of 1277 illustrations. The unique feature of the study is the integration of taxonomic aspects with field biology and ecology details.
Aphids or plant lice, are small, soft bodied, sucking insects that feed on plant fluids. Heavy infestations reduce plant growth. Honey dew produced by Aphids makes leaves and flowers sticky and acts as a substrate for black sooty fungus. Their tremendous damaging potential related to their high breeding capacity, polymorphism, parthenogenetic and host alteration. About 4700 aphid species are known worldwide. About 803 species/subspecies belonging to 207 genera represents Indian Aphididae. The desert area represents less number of aphids species. The green citrus aphid Aphis spiraecola Patch (homoptera: Aphididae) is one of the most important polyphagous species found in India, is cosmopolitan. Aphis spiraecola is pestiferous over 65 plant genera especially Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, Malvaceae, Polygonaceae, Rosaceae, Rubiaceae, Rutaceae and Solanaceae. Aphis spiraecola is pest of Mexican aster and Lemon, damages directly or indirectly mainly in Northeastern Uttar Pradesh, India. The biosystematical and bioecological study of the aphids furnishes useful taxonomical, biological and ecological infestation and is necessary for formulating and control programme.
The following points have been studied in this book: 1. Characteristics of Climate in Libya. 2. Recent climate changes over time and space in Libya comparing with the global change. 3. Trends of climate occurred recently in two periods:1946-2000 as a long-term period, and 1976-2000 as a short-term period. 4. Physical and human causes of climate change in Libya. 5. Impacts of climate change on Libya. 6. Effects of climate change on desertification in Jifara Plain. 7. Manifestations and degrees of desertification. 8. The other factors accelerated desertification in Jifara Plain. 9. Projections of climate change in Libya comparing with the globe. 10. Mitigation of climate change in Libya. 11. Combating of desertification in Jifara Plain. The book includes 87 tables and 93 figures and 10 photos
The Seshachalam Biosphere Reserve designated in 2011, these hill ranges are part of the Eastern Ghats lie between 13°38’ E and 13°55’N and 79°07’ and 79°24’E spread over Chittoor and Kadapah districts of Andhra Pradesh. The vegetation is a unique mix of the tropical southern dry mixed deciduous types. The elevation ranges from 150 to 1,130 m, the terrain is undulating, with deep forest-covered valleys. The mean maximum temperature ranges from 16o C to 46o C and minimum from 9.7 o C to 25 o C. Average rainfall in this region is between 800 to 900mm. The objective of the survey is to determine the presence and status of biodiversity taxa to the region. A detailed survey of was conducted from three successful season from August 2011 to January 2014. During inventory study, systematic and standard methodology were followed and analysed. So far 52 mammals species followed by 96 butterflies, 33 snakes, 13 liza, 12 amphibians and 214 birds were recorded.Status of species, abundance, and diversity has been analysed. Colour photographs, checklist of all species were updated.So far three new records, two rediscovered, two new locality records and one new record in India were reported.
We have explored the biodiversity and importance of Ramsar sites in Pakistan. We have also discussed the importance and size of wetlands in the world and Pakistan. All the Ramsar sites in Pakistan are reviewed and discussed as; the importance of the study area, temperature, humidity and rainfall. Diversity of Plants, Fishes, Amphibian, Reptiles, Mammals and Birds of each Ramsar sites are reviewed.
In the book the biodiversity conservation status, problems, efforts and prospects in parts of the Horn of African countries representing Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia and Somalia are reviewed. The ever-growing human population of >100 million, and various socio-economic, environmental and cultural issues are indicated as challenging the implementation of biodiversity conservation programs in this region. This region has diverse types of ecosystems such as highlands, Afro-alpine, lowlands, deserts and coastal areas with varied topography, and vegetation types correlated with the level of precipitation in the respective areas. The biodiversity of the Horn of African region is also endowed with high level of endemism. Two biodiversity hotspots, viz., the Horn of Africa biodiversity hotspot and the Eastern Afro-montane biodiversity hotspot occur in the region. Over 1,300 plants and animals species of the region listed in the IUCN red list categories. Many of the biodiversity resources of the region have high potential for human use. However, detailed studies on the biodiversity resources of the Horn of Africa region and its conservation are yet to be undertaken.
Man has always been facinated by the diversity of life. Huminity derived all of its food and many medicines and industrial products from wild and domesticated plant life. Kashmir is bestowed with a unique biodiversity comprising of different climatic zones and wide range of plant species. Plants are crucial for the diversity of terrestrial life. The medicinal values of plants play vital role in general health of mankind. Allopathic drugs cause many side effects as compared to the extracts of medicinal plants. All indigenous remedies, whether traditional or modern, have originated directly or indirectly from folklore and rituals or measuring hold to the treasure of folk medicinal knowledge and ethnomedical botany. With rapid population growth and the experience of economic development by the means of outside interventions, the natural habitats have already been destroyed to considerable extent. This situation is particularly critical in the Himalayan region that is documented in this work.Conservation of biodiversity calls for both global attention and prompt action at regional level also.
It is extremely important to apply community based co-management approach to harness aquatic resources and conserve biodiversity of the beel. In order to promote biodiversity the deep area of the beel must be declared as sanctuaries to protect the aquatic lives in all season, strict enforcement of fish Act-1950, forbidding unplanned digging and sedimentation; avoid unplanned construction of flood control, embankments, drainage system and sluice gates, conversion of inundated land to cropland (reducing water area); and controlling use of pesticides and agrochemicals in the beel and flood plain area. The above issue will be lead to ensure the food security of the people of Bangladesh.
The End of Southern Exceptionalism – Class, Race, and Partisan Change in the Postwar South
Mangrove forests are among the world’s most productive ecosystems and cover an area of about 18 X 106 hectares. They are the only forests situated at the confluence of land and sea in tropical and subtropical latitudes. With continuing degradation and destruction of mangroves, there is a critical need to understand the biodiversity of the mangrove ecosystems. Presence of 15 species of flora, 86 species of macrobenthos, 31 species of fishes, 56 species of birds and 3 species of mammals focus light on varied diversity and resourcefulness of the mangroves ecosystem of Uran. Population density and biomass of selected macrobenthos in mangroves of Uran is high during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon than the monsoon. Data on various diversity indices are in agreement with each other. In coming few years, area around Uran coast will be dominated by intense industrialization and urbanization. In such circumstances, pollution of Uran coast cannot be ignored. Data of present analysis should be useful to postgraduate students and researchers of Botany & Zoology.
In recent years, the whole world is facing a problem of man made or natural disasters. Particularly, the water world is having these kinds of problems. The ultimate result is the great sufferings of the aquatic organisms. Small Indigenous Species of fish of Bangladesh is disappearing in the wild due to various reasons. Very few works are available on the biodiversity status of these species of fish. Biodiversity status gives the information of the distribution, abundance and threatening of the concerned species. This book gives the detail information on the biology, systematic position, distribution, abundance and the national threatened categories described by IUCN. It gives the taxonomic characters, systematic information and biodiversity status of eight Puntius species and some minnows too. Overall fishery importance are also a concerned of interest. This attempt will be helpful for the researchers, students, scientists of biological science specially those one who are devoted to the work on biodiversity and conservation. Policy makers may also pay their attention having read this minute attempts.
This volume examines the political rationale for the various actors in the lead-up and conduct of the military intervention in Libya, and goes on to examine its broader consequences.