In this book, we have analyzed the contribution of the magnetic stress energy to the supernova bounce. A calculation of Maxwell stress tensor is proposed that leads to the expression of the magnetic force density. By making the link between the magnetic force density and the Maxwell stress tensor we found the magnetic pressure, which support the star from gravitational collapse and we found the strength of magnetic field at the surface of the star. The magnetic field which produces magnetic pressure and magnetic pressure are associated with the electromagnetic vacuum to a perfectly magnetically permeable one. We find a generic result of the surface magnetic field, B ? 1018 G and the magnetic pressure, Pmag 1033 2 cms g which is responsible for the bounce of falling material.
The discovery and detection of ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) of energy up to 10^20 eV have posed a serious challenge to the astrophysicists about their origin as well as the physical acceleration mechanisms. Some theoretical approaches in the past assuming elastic scatterings of cosmic charged particles with magnetic clouds then developed by assuming the presence of shock waves originated from supernova remnant succeeded to explain the existence of energies up to 10^15 eV. The assumption of particle-electromagnetic field interaction with constant fields succeeded to interpret the possibility of finding cosmic particles of energies up to 10^20 eV. From the astrophysical plasma aspects, the interaction of cosmic charged particles with the time varying magnetic field, like that present in the magnetosphere of pulsar and magnetar, as potent sources can lead to higher energies. Moreover, the coupling of the cosmic charged particle-spatially varying electromagnetic field interaction and the well-known Fermi mechanisms furnish a reasonable theoretical approach to interpret the existence of UHECRs of energy up to 10^22 eV.
Energy Metabolism of the Brain is Book that was written to address the much needed interpretation of results in the field. The basic concept is to address the ideology of neuronal survival against astrocytic activation and genetic material repair. The survival of the neuron is dependent on the astrocytic neuronal glutamate-glucose cycling and the ratio of glutamate to glutamaine. the pathway also interacts with the TCa cycle, ornithine pathway and the GABA-Succinate-Glutamine pathway
A crucial problem of research in thermonuclear plasma physics in Tokamaks is the control of rotating helical magnetic perturbations, associated with local distortions of the current density profile. These unstable perturbations (called magnetic islands) can seriously degrade plasma and energy confinement. By injecting energy to the magnetic islands using microwave antennas, a specific magnetic surface layer will be resonance and heated which causes the magnetic islands to disappear. The main goal of this book is to discuss about the implementation of reliable hardware and software structure which is capable of running estimator, observer and controller in real-time to achieve the MHD instability suppression in the FTU (Frascati Tokamak Upgrade) of ENEA in Frascati, Italy in collaboration with IFP-CNR in Milan. Design and realization of signal conditioning and insulation circuit for motor inverters I/O control signals, motors brake control circuit to activate faster motor braking by protection system, and design and implementation of high-speed communication algorithms among the FPGA and DSP modules have been another part of the authors contribution to this research.
Can music develop the ability to bounce back in adversities or help people to cope with mental health problems? Recent years have seen a dramatic rise in research on stress and coping, as well as on risk and resilience in adolescents. Medical science has started realizing the potential of music as a form of treatment, called music therapy.The purpose of this book " Stress to Resilience - A Passage Through Music" is a humble attempt to acknowledge the importance of Indian Ragas to be used as interventions to cope with day to day stress and to enhance resilience because music has an inherent ability to generate an emotional response in the listener as a therapy. This book begins with an overview of issues faced by adolescents, followed by a survey of the current literature highlighting the theoretical models of music therapy; then different types of quantitative and qualitative research related to this field. Hopefully this work will assist music therapy clinicians, psychologists and medical practitioners in establishing best practices in mental health care to provide melodious care needed by all generations
Recently, saving energy as well as minimization of environmental pollution has become a serious issue. So high portion of ferrous alloys particularly used in automation industry should be replaced by light alloys and their composites. To meet the service applications while the new materials are in use, great efforts should be exerted in materials development field. Metal-matrix composites (MMCs) have been attracting growing interest in the last decades. Knowledge about their properties is an essential need for designers. This book introduces a contribution in this area. It demonstrates the possibility of improvement high thermal shock resistance of materials. Our concern is dealing with the thermal fatigue that these materials undergo when subjected to thermal excursion. Thermal fatigue is a threat for MMCs which could lead to catastrophic failure of machine elements and loss of life in severe cases. Emphasizing the gap in this knowledge, this book has been identified to handle essentially major issues; material processing and characterization, thermal behavior of such materials with designing and constructing an apparatus for carrying out thermal cycling test with a new technique
Among the different load conditions on a mechanical system, impact loading and its contribution to the design process require special consideration. A comprehensive description of the fundamental methodologies for impact dynamics and energy dissipation in mechanical systems and structures is provided in this book. These approaches include stereomechanics, contact mechanics, stress wave propagation, plastic deformation, and numerical analysis. The implementation of these methodologies is presented in terms of different automotive and aircraft impact test cases related to the impact energy management, impulse mitigation, and impact injury biomechanics.
Grinding is characterised by high specific energy and high grinding temperature that often leads to thermal damages and poor surface integrity, particularly induction of tensile residual stress. Residual stress on ground component can be reliably assessed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) technique, but the same is basically a laboratory based procedure and time consuming. Micro-magnetic technique like Barkhausen Noise (BN) provides much faster in-situ measurement of residual stress but is restricted to ferromagnetic work material and it needs calibration. The main aim of the current work is to evaluate applicability of BN technique to assess surface integrity aspects, with emphasis on residual stress, in grinding. The study encompasses two work materials ground using three grinding techniques to cover a wide experimental domain. The experimental results indicate successful application of BN technique in assessing surface integrity of ground components despite simultaneous change in state of stress, hardness and grain size of the work material. The present work introduced the novel signal processing technique for work materials exhibiting poor BN response.
Magnetic microspheres as an alternative to traditional radiation methods which use highly penetrating radiation that is absorbed throughout the body. Its use is limited by toxicity and side effects. The aim of the specific targeting is to enhance the efficiency of drug delivery & at the same time to reduce the toxicity & side effects. This contribution provides a comprehensive review of its mechanism, preparation, applications and updates of magnetic microspheres.
As technology is continuously scaling down leakage current is increasing exponentially. Contribution of leakage current is around 50% to the total operational power of digital circuits. With increasing demand of portable battery operated devices like cell phones, pagers and laptops, low power design has become important design style for future battery powered devices. This exponential increase in leakage power has made Multi-Threshold CMOS (MTCMOS) technique an attractive design choice for low power application. Conventional MTCMOS techniques for minimizing leakage current gives rise to ground bounce noise during mode transition which is also an important challenge and reduces the reliability of the circuit. In this work different multi-threshold CMOS techniques have been presented and compared which uses the concept of forward body biasing, diode connected MOS, ultra low power diode and signal stepping.Proposed designs has shown significant improvement in ground bounce noise and standby leakage current as compared to designs proposed in past.
Charpy impact energy of functionally graded steel produced by electroslag remelting has been modeled in crack divider configuration. To produce functionally graded steels, two slices of plain carbon steel and austenitic stainless steels were spot welded and used as electroslag remelting electrode. Functionally graded steel containing graded layers of ferrite and austenite may be fabricated via diffusion of alloying elements during remelting stage. Vickers microhardness profile of the specimen has been obtained experimentally and modeled with artificial neural networks. To build the model for graded ferritic and austenitic steels, training, testing and validation using respectively 174 and 120 experimental data were conducted. The Vickers microhardness of each layer in functionally graded steels was related to the yield stress of the corresponding layer and by assuming Holloman relation for stress-strain curve of each layer, they were acquired. Afterwards; the stress-strain curves were modified by the load-displacement data achieved from instrumented Charpy impact tests. Finally, by applying the rule of mixtures, Charpy impact energy of functionally graded steels in crack divider co
The higher education sector is one of the most important sectors. It is very important to determine the factors which might affect the organisational performance and one of these is the occupation stress. Job stressors affect the productivity and efficacy of the staff both at the short and long terms which will ultimately affect the students negatively. The performance of the staff, both as teachers and researchers and also as managers, determines to a large extent, the quality of the student experience of higher education and has a significant impact on student learning and thereby on the contribution that such institutions can make to society
The main objective of the study is to assess the contribution of dairy farming on rural livelihood. In Nepalese context, dairy farming is one of the most appropriate and viable alternatives, which can provide food in terms of milk and meat, income earning and energy generation in terms of biogas at the household level. In this study following issues were clearly examined and analyzed; • Crop and dairy farming and their production in Nepal. • Milk yield of individual dairy cow. • Role of Cooperative dairying in dairy production at the household level. • Role of dairy animal as a source of energy • Livelihood strategies being practiced by the farmers in order to maintain their livelihood. I hope this study is helpful for students, researchers, teachers and all those who are doing research, especially on various socio-economic aspects.
Video This Magnetic Fidget Pen not only is a fidget pen, but also is a writing pen, this metal pen can be bent, spun and transformed various features, if you fidget or under the pressure, it is a great toy to relax the mood and release the pressure. Flex You can flex this fidget pen to release the pressure, it is flexible, and it won't break off. Spin The small ball with strong magnetic force can be floated and spun to satisfy sliding action of your finger. Slide The metal sphere has a silky-smooth rotation to slide. Twist Removable clip with magnets that allows you to detach and reconnect the clip. Specifications Name Magnetic Fidget Pen Material Metal Type Fidget toy Product Weight 39g Product Size 14.5 x 10 cm Package Size (L x W x H) 17.5 x 5.5 x 2.3 cm Package Contents 1 x Magnetic Fidget Pen