Metabolic syndrome is associated with other risk factors and is associated with cardiovascular disease. Obesity is a risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD) . Perception mechanisms linking obesity and chronic kidney disease are important not only of the social health burden of both conditions, but also, due to novel insights into the underlying mechanisms may lead to new strategies to treat or prevent chronic kidney disease and its associated comorbidities. More developed countries are facing an obesity epidemic and growing.experience rapid increase in the prevalence because this age group experienced the greatest burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD), and cardiovascular disease, malignancy, that each of them may be aggravated with obesity. Obesity is almost certainly indirectly contributes to chronic kidney disease due to associates with many major CKD risk factors such as diabetes, high blood pressure, and atherosclerosis. Cystatin C has recently been shown as an accurate indicator of glomerular filtration rate with benefits than serum creatinine . Glomerular filtration rate is the best overall index of renal function in health and disease.
Focusing on the exciting field of research covers the mechanisms and molecules that involved in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome . Specific topics include the changing areas of interest, such as fetal growth, oxidative stress, inflammation and adipocytokines, and also including vascular complications, atherothrombosis, genetics had been inserted. Over the past few years there has been an exponential increase in interest the Metabolic Syndrome best described perhaps as a clustering of closely related cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Since the original ‘description’ of the metabolic syndrome, the ‘hypertension- hyperglycaemia-hyperuricaemia syndrome’, early in the last century by a Swedish physician, Eskil Kylin, it has been recognised that concurrent CHD and type 2 diabetes often occur in overweight patients. Reaven linked resistance to insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, with increased blood pressure, glucose concentrations and dyslipidaemia. Undoubtedly much will be learned over the next few years about the aetiology. There will be a search for new drugs which can treat several of the components of the syndrome.
This work is one of the leading research in Egypt and all over the world in field of clinical biochemistry. This work is a collaboration between pharmacy college, helwan University and National Institute of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Egypt.We are seeking to find new tools for early prediction and monitoring of complications associated with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus especially renal and cardiovascular ones. Cystatin C is a golden one for that mission and outperforms over different traditional markers in this field. We recommend this book as guide for master and PhD researchers in field of Diabetes and Endocrinology.
" Are psoriasis and metabolic syndrome offshoots of the same root?" is a small exercise to make a scientific understanding of etiological association of the two processes. Although a good beginning, still lot of research is needed in this field. C-reactive protein, a marker of inflammation, can be used to sort out those psoriatic patients who are likely to benefit from therapy by biological agents and can also help to delineate those psoriatic patients who are at high risk of developing a metabolic syndrome.
Nephropathy is a major complication of diabetes and the leading cause of end-stage renal disease; it is clinically characterized by proteinuria and progressive renal insufficiency. Human podocytes have been demonstrated to be functionally and structurally injured in the natural history of diabetic nephropathy. Urinary podocyte count and measurement of urinary podocyte specific markers (nephrin, synaptopodin, podocin and podocalyxin) have been developed to detect podocyte injury. We discuss the emerging clinical importance of the urinary podocyte count in experimental and human glomerular disease, as well as measurement of urinary podocyte specific marker
Nurses who are mostly shift workers were found to be at risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). A cross sectional study was conducted among 404 female nurses working in a teaching hospital in Kelantan, Malaysia to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its associated factors. Data were collected using a proforma consisted of sociodemographic data, occupational history, physical activity and DASS 42 questionnaire (validated Malay version). Anthropometric, blood pressure measurement and fasting venous blood were taken from each subject for fasting lipid profile and blood sugar. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 24.3% (95% CI: 20.1, 28.4). The significant factors associated with metabolic syndrome were total duration of employment (years) and one way commuting time to work (minutes). High prevalence of metabolic syndrome indicates that nurses are occupational high risk group for CHD. Occupational factors which significantly associated with metabolic syndrome in this study are total duration of employment and one way commuting time to work, however there is no significant relationship between metabolic syndrome and shift work as well as self-perceived job stress.
The optimal exercise load/intensity for exercise programs for individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS) has not been investigated. One method of determining optimal exercise load is to measure the blood lactate transition threshold (BLTT), referred to as the anaerobic threshold (AT). The first part of this thesis investigated the reproducibility of BLTT testing and the consequent determination of AT via the Mader method and a modified form of the ADAPT method in patients with MetS. Physical activity has been identified as a therapeutic goal and is recommended for the management of MetS. Currently exercise guidelines for MetS are the same as those for obesity with consideration given to the presence of any CVD risk factors. Yet, MetS is a multi-faceted disease and the effect of specific exercise protocols on the different components of MetS has not been investigated. Therefore, the main aim of this PhD study was to design an exercise program to optimize exercise responses and improve metabolic characteristics in individuals with metabolic syndrome. The blood lactate transition threshold (BLTT) referred to as the anaerobic threshold (AT), was used to optimize the exercise response.
The metabolic syndrome is a complex cardiometabolic cluster characterized by hyperinsulinaemia, low glucose tolerance, dyslipidaemia, hypertension and obesity. It represents a significant marker of increased risk for both cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. To fight efficiently the forecasted type 2 diabetes and its cardiovascular and metabolic complications, evidence-based strategies, focusing on target groups at risk, are needed to tailor prevention programs. In this context, the overall aim of this work was to investigate, for the first time, the epidemiological profile of the metabolic syndrome, its variations and its potential socioeconomic, behavioral and biological determinants among the adult population residing in Luxembourg. Such data should offer new possibilities for successful intervention to prevent and treat the metabolic syndrome before the coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes develop in susceptible individuals and groups.
The metabolic syndrome a concurrence of disturbed glucose and insulin metabolism, overweight and abdominal fat distribution, dyslipidemia and hypertension, is associated with subsequent development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Despite its high prevalence in Asians, no national estimate is currently available on the metabolic syndrome in patients with acute myocardial infarction in Pakistan.A matched case control study using questionnaire and analysis of components of metabolic syndrome was carried out at tertiary care hospitals of Peshawar Pakhtunkhwa.The result showed that patients were 6.19 times more likely to have three or more diagnostic criteria of metabolic syndrome than the controls i.e. 55% vs 17%. This study contributed to the fact that metabolic syndrome is more common in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Screening of adults with central obesity for other parameters of the metabolic syndrome may help to reduce the prevalence of metabolic syndrome as well of myocardial infarction at an early age, which is the complication of metabolic syndrome.
Hiv is a major risk factor for kidney disease especially among children of African descent. Also, art’s and other drugs used in the treatment of HIV-infected children are known to be potentially nephrotoxic, despite their beneficial effects. This highlights the need for a precise assessment of kidney function to enable early interventions. However, serum creatinine and other common methods of evaluation of kidney function have major limitations especially in HIV-infected children. Several studies have shown serum cystatin C to be superior to creatinine as a marker of kidney damage, promptly detecting early stages of ckd so that therapeutic measures can be instituted to halt or slow their progression. Hence, as in this study, utilisation of such a marker is of utmost importance in view of the peculiarity of the resource-poor African setting where facilities for long term management of esrd in children are scarce and unaffordable. In addition, there is paucity of data on kidney function of Hiv-infected children in this sub-region. This research has added to the pool of information that will enable the development of clinical practice guidelines on assessment and management of ckd
With respect to considerable lifestyle changes in humans it is expected that there will be change in diseases pattern also. This book gives a comprehensive approach to readers to understand basic concept of metabolic syndrome.This book is being primarily designed for new researchers. It also gives an ideas to researchers to carry out studies of metabolic syndrome in rural areas. This study also reveals the necessity of various health schemes to be launched in rural areas and traditional communities for health for all. The style of text is simple and lucid. References are given at the end of each chapter.It will definitely be immense help as a source of excellent information to all readers with easy understanding.
This is a cross sectional study on 400 cases of diabetes mellitus who attended the National Diabetic centre/ AL–Mustensyria university for a period of 6 months. The main factor of metabolic syndrome was dysglycaemia followed by hypertension, obesity and dyslipidaemia. Females in this study were more prone to have metabolic syndrome; Male: Female ratio = 0.5. Those in the age group 60-69 have the highest frequency of metabolic syndrome. Those with BMI 30-40 have the highest frequency of metabolic syndrome. Conclusion: This study concludes that early diagnosis and aggressive treatment is needed for metabolic syndrome to avoid cardiovascular complications. This study is important because of its predictive power for cardiovascular complication and diabetes.
Metabolic Syndrome is an aggregation of conditions that together increases the risk of cardiovascular disease in individuals that would not otherwise be recognized to be at risk. Aim: to assess the status of high sensitive C reactive protein (hs-CRP) in patients with Metabolic Syndrome. METHODS: This study is a cross-sectional study. The patients included in this study were 48 patients (of both sexes) attending the Diabetic Consultant Clinic during the period from January, 2010 till the end of September, 2010. The study included another 50 apparently healthy volunteer that were comparable to patients group with respect to age and sex and serve as a control group. They were screened for Metabolic Syndrome criteria.For the two groups hs-CRP was measured using ELISA kit. The results: BMI and BP were significantly higher in the MetS than the control. MetS group had significantly higher (hs-CRP) levels than control group and significantly higher Lipid profile than the control group. In conclusion, high sensitive C Reactive Protein can thus be simple, powerful markers of Metabolic Syndrome.
The book is intended for a wide range of readers - endocrinologists, cardiologists, neurologists, gynecologists, psychiatrists, psychologists, dieticians, general practitioners, medical students, specializing doctors and patients with obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus. The monography contains data of the author’s research on neurotrophines, mast cells, chronic inflammatory and psychoemotional distress, changes in salivary glands and thyroidea, chormonal disbalance in metabolic syndrome. By revealing little-known scientific facts about NGF and etiopathogenetic mechanisms of development of cardio-metabolic disease, this book provides an answer to the ways of successful treatment of the abovementioned socially significant diseases.
Metabolic syndrome is a modern era disease which has engulfed wide regions of the world and the problem is increasing at a rapid pace. The atherogenic dyslipidemia associated with the metabolic syndrome predispose to cardiovascular events. The Statins are considered first-line therapy for treating Dyslipidemia. Clinical response to statins is highly variable and genetic factors play an important role. Sterol regulatory element binding factors (SREBF) – SREBF Cleavage Activating Protein (SCAP) pathway play important roles in lipid metabolism and homeostasis. Identification of genes & genetic variants that influence statin responsiveness holds promise for a safe and effective treatment of Dyslipidemia in Metabolic syndrome.