This work x-rays the place of literature in the development of the communicative competence of second language speakers. With the understanding that effective communication is the central thing in any second language situation, the work examines how best to achieve this. But the way the English language is taught at all the levels of education in Nigeria leaves a lot to be desired, and therefore does not hold a promise of actualising the very end of language teaching and learning, which is the development of learners’ communicative competence. If literature is the colour of its language, teaching any language without its literature is bleaching that language. Any teaching method that adopts this antiseptic learning of the target language may not achieve much as literature presents the best examples or manifestations of language use, and would serve as a veritable point of encounter with the language, or what Stephen Krashen calls ‘comprehensible input’ (87). The position of this work is that the divorce between ‘language’ and ‘literature’ in the educational curriculum is an anathema. This study was premised on the theoretical frame of communicative language teaching (CLT).
Language is the tool of communication and enables the learner to express his views and thinking. Thus, it develops a mental discipline in him. It is through this mental discipline that all his experience , feelings and desires, find vent into expression, which cannot be an effective one, if not carried on and expressed in terms of language. This book provides a comprehensive overview of innovative trends and technologies to develop English language and communication skills through Integrated Skills Approach. By using the tried and tested techniques, tips and guidelines presented in this book, I hope you will enjoy learning to communicate your ideas effectively and professionally, so enhances your own career as well as the success of your organization.
Amharic is the official language of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. Many foreigners from different ethno-linguistic groups come to Ethiopia as researchers, missionaries, tourists, employees, investors and official representatives of their countries. These people are eager to learn Amharic in order to communicate, work and share experiences with Ethiopians; however, the efforts of teaching Amharic are accompanied by many problems such as multi-level classes, lack of quality textbooks and other teaching materials, absence of curriculum and poor teaching and testing methods. In order to overcome these problems, learners'' difficulties have to be identified to support textbook writers and second language acquisition researchers. Moreover, it is important to understand the process of second language acquisition. In this book several of the common problems native English speakers face with the Amharic grammar and the acquisition order of Amharic morphemes are discussed in depth. The book is highly valuable as a reference guide for learners, teachers, textbook writers and curriculum designers of Amharic as a Second Language.
This study was an investigation on "interactive teaching methods in developing oral communicative competence in learners of English Language."The objectives were:to establish the interactive methods used to teach oral skills,to determine the effect interactive teaching methods have on oral language learning, to find out factors that inhibit effective teaching and learning of oral communicative skills.The study was based on'The Communicative Language Teaching Theory'and 'Classroom Interaction Analysis Theory' by Sinclair and Coulthard(1975).Descriptive research design was employed in the study.The district has 33 secondary schools.The target population was all secondary school students and teachers of English of Form three,from the 33 schools.The population was selected using Stratified random sampling technique,arriving at a total of 13 secondary schools.The research instruments used:teacher interview,classroom observation,audio-tape recording and document analysis.Collected data was analyzed qualitatively using descriptive statistics to get means,frequencies and percentages showing the relationship between teacher methodology and learner's oral competence.
The growing need for effective crosscultural communicative competence in TESOL professionals who possess a critical pedagogical competence has become more evident due to the increasing number of ELLs and LCD students and the global socioeconomic, technological, and political developments. This trend is not unique to the USA, but is also occurring in many other countries. Lack of preparedness is corroborated through a needs assessment that emerged from more than twenty-five years of teaching experience and research which motivated the author to write this book. The book presents an in-depth, interdisciplinary, approach to developing a critical pedagogical and crosscultural communicative competence in pre-service and inservice ESL/EFL teachers. It offers a practical research-based model to develop this competence in teachers using a critical-incident pedagogical approach. The integration of Computer-Assisted Language Learning in this model makes it unique. The book includes classroom-tested activities, instructional resources and strategies, based on findings and insights gained from research as well as professional development workshops presented nationally and internationally.
COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE IS CONSIDERD AS THE AGGREGATE OF LINGUISTIC COMPETENCE, SOCIOLINGUISTIC COMPETENCE, PRAGMATIC COMPETENCE AND STRATEGIC COMPETENCE. THE AUTHOR HAS GIVEN CONSIDERABLE ATTENTION TO STRATEGIC COMPETENCE OR COMMUNICATION STRATEGIES. COMMUNICATION STRATEGIES THAT A SPEAKER EMPLOYS WERE BELIEVED TO BE LANGUAGE ERRORS. HOWEVER, VARIOUS RESEARCHES CONFIRM THAT COMMUNICATION STRATEGIES ARE TECHNIQUES WHICH HELP TO SOLVE COMMUNICATION PROBLEMS BETWEEN A SPEAKER AND HIS/HER INTERLOCUTER. THEY ARE ALSO IMPORTANT TECHNIQUES THAT A SPEAKER UTILIZES DEPENDING ON THE LANGUAGE COMPETENCE OFAN INTERLOCUTER. THEREFORE, FOREIGN/SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNERS NEED TO BE TRAINED TO UTILIZING TARGET LANGUAGE-BASED STRATEGIES AND BE EFFECTIVE IN THEIR REAL LIFE COMMUNICATION. IN THE STUDY OF "COMMUNICATION STRATEGIES UTILIZED BY THE TEACHER-TRAINEES", BOTH FIRST LANGUAGE BASED AND TARGET LANGUAGE BASED STRATEGIES ARE INVESTIGATED. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEXT TYPE AND STRATEGY PREFFERENCE ALSO STUDIED.
Attaining competence in a language is very important to the speakers of any language, and more so to those who learn a language for a particular purpose. However, it is not always easy to attain competence due to the influence of the learners'' first language. This book explores the syntactic errors, which result from L1 transfer in the process of acquiring English as a second language by Keiyo L1 learners of English, and whether teaching plays a role in the elimination of the errors. Error analysis and Inter-language theories constituted the theoretical framework of the study. The study sample was drawn from pupils who are L1 speakers of Keiyo. This book is a major scholarly contribution in Second Language Acquisition studies and language education curriculum planning.
Globalization has prioritized the need for communicative competence, especially in the field of teaching foreign language. Thus, currently, there has been a major shift in emphasis concerning the ‘what’ and ‘how’ to teach English as a foreign language because of communicative language teaching method (CLT), which is expected to develop the learners communicative competence. Because of this, the CLT approach has been accepted and given great emphasis in order to give students adequate opportunity to practice the language meaningfully and develop communicative competence. However, for the method to succeed, the practitioners play a very vital and prominent role. No matter how appealing the objectives of any system or policy might be theoretically if it is not well practiced, it will be difficult to attain. Hence, the purpose of this study was to assess the practice of communicative language teaching (CLT) in the contemporary plasma TV based classrooms and to investigate the constraints that challenge its practice in three secondary schools in Wolaita zone, Ethiopia.
The book aims at the comparison of native-speaker model (native-speakers’ imitation) and bilingual communicative model (based on the purpose of communication) in terms of appropriateness for learning and teaching English as a second language. ESL/EFL learners are expected that they would achieve native-like competence in English language. Such expectations from the learners are often translated into an utter disappointment because native-speaker model is unattainable in a multilingual setting. The study looks into the matter and diagnoses the reasons as to why such model is not achievable. First, the defining characteristics of native and non-native speaker; native-speaker model were re-examined in literature. Then, the perceptions of the students and teachers regarding their preferred model, their purposes in learning English, their attitudes towards English language, and the problems associated with learning and teaching of English in following native-speaker model were explored through questionnaires and interviews. The results indicated that the students and teachers opted for bilingual communicative model as their preferred model for learning and teaching English
It is apparent that Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) is one of the common approaches worldwide. It has been advocated by a number of linguists, methodologists and English teachers as one of the effective and successful English language teaching approaches. This book focuses on this approach and its applicability in general and Kurdistan Region-Iraq in particular. This approach concentrates mainly on communicative competence rather than grammatical competence. Many teachers try to use this approach in their teaching but fail to apply it utterly. This book also explores and undertakes the difficulties that preclude teachers in implementing this approach with some suggestions to bar these difficulties.
With the development of linguistics, our understandings about language become more and more profound. In the 1990s, Bachman put forward a relatively mature framework of communicative language ability, which consists of competence of knowing the world and competence of knowing the language. With the help of mental capacity, such competence will be properly executed in a communicative context. How to test such communicative language ability has become a big problem for test designers. According to the nature of listening comprehension, this research aims to have an investigation on the validity of the new CET-4 listening subtest from a communicative point of view.
The strategies for teaching English have undergone various changes due to the gradual changes in the approaches that underpin language learning. This study sought to investigate how teachers of English in a Tanzanian secondary school use various strategies to help learners develop communicative competence in English. The literature reveals that the teaching of English in Tanzania is encumbered by many challenges. The study confirmed that both teachers and students face challenges that impede the use of more effective. strategies in developing language competence. Such challenges include learners’ language background, inadequate teaching and learning resources and teachers’ lack of knowledge and skills in using CLT methodology, coupled with poor teacher training among other challenges. In addition, the findings established that though the teachers of English endeavor to use a variety of strategies, there is a need to improve the way these strategies are used so as to develop communicative language competence in learners. The study recommends that teachers of English should employ more interactive CLT strategies that would enhance communicative language competence in learners.
Studying abroad denotes crossing more barriers than the borders of one's country. With an increasing popularity and availability of study abroad (SA) programmes the need arose to support international students in overcoming the difficulties of living in a foreign country. The overall aim of this work is to explore the impact of SA programmes on tertiary students' intercultural communicative competence (ICC). The reader will find a detailed yet concise insight into the nature of ICC on the example of the Erasmus participants. A historical overview of the concept of ICC is followed by a discussion on the intercultural approach in foreign language teaching, and the author's outline of research conducted on the topic in recent decades. The empirical part of the book reports on the author's own research, which delves into the development of particular ICC components during stay abroad and aims to explicate how language educators can help students in their future sojourns. The findings of the undertaken research will be a source of inspiration for anyone concerned with intercultural competence, cross-cultural communication, student exchange programmes, and foreign language education.
An international graduate student in the US needs to be grammatically, syntactically, semantically, pragmatically, culturally, and conversationally competent in interviews. S/he must also be a critical reader and a positive participant within communicative events to ensure academic success. This qualitative study suggests that aspects of conversational competence and the use of language as indicators of power typical of American academic interviews be included in our current conceptualization of communicative competence.
This book introduces its audience to the use of CLT in ESL context. The author investigates the relevance of CLT as an additional approach to improving the falling standard of English in Ghana. She uses CLT as the theoretical underpinning of the study. The central theoretical concept in CLT is communicative competence. Communicative competence includes sociocultural, strategic, discourse and grammatical competences. These competences make the learner able to negotiate meaning in the English language. Additionally, CLT is eclectic in nature and is learner centered with the teacher being the facilitator. The study employs experimental research in investigating the impact of CLT in English language teaching. The subjects were categorized into control and experimental groups. The members of the experimental group were taught by using CLT while the Structural approach was used for the control group. The data gathered and analyzed indicated that CLT is an approach that can improve the standard of English in Ghana.