Obesity is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In Mongolia, cardiovascular diseases have consistently been the leading cause of death since 1995. However, there is a lack of study on the relationship between diet and nutritional risk factors of chronic disease among Mongolians. The purpose of this study was to identify major dietary patterns of the Mongolian adults and to examine the dietary patterns as risk factor of overweight and obesity. The cross - sectional study of 420 healthy Mongolian men and women aged 25 years and over was conducted in urban and rural province of Mongolia. The study findings suggest that public health efforts in Mongolia should be targeted at population subgroups in order to address prevailing specific aspects of the Transitional and Traditional dietary patterns, which were found to be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
Overweight and obesity have reached epidemic proportions worldwide and affect over 300 million people. Strategies of weight management include lifestyle modification, medical treatment and alternative therapy. The role of diet in weight management and how it compares with other interventions is reviewed in this thesis. Alternative strategies are also discussed. Modifications in diet and physical activity are crucial at all levels of management. A high-carbohydrate, low-fat, high protein and high fiber energy-deficient diet is a potentially effective dietary strategy. Physical exercise alone is more effective at preventing weight regain than promoting weight loss. Classic and cognitive behavior therapy commonly complement diet and physical activity. Pharmacotherapy is indicated for overweight patients with concomitant comorbidities and obese individuals. Bariatric surgery is efficacious for weight loss for class 2 obese patients with serious comorbidities and those with class 3 obesity. Dietary patterns, low GI and low energy-dense diets as well as other novel medicines need consideration as alternative strategies for weight management in future.
Prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing not only among adult but also among adolescents. Not much information is available regarding prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents in a developing country like India. This work was done in Ahmedabad, a city in India. The book can provide valuable information to researchers regarding prevalence and risk factors for overweight and obesity among adolescents in a developing country.
This book provides an overview of changing dietary habits among adolescents from different regions of the World. Validated food frequency questionnaire and socio demographic were completed , and underwent anthropometric measurements by trained personnel. BMI was calculated from measured heights and weight. The Bolivian Adolescents Percentiles Reference (BAP) was used for nutritional classification. The general regression model was fitted to estimate the mean consumption of major foods and intake level of nutrients by different socio-economic variables after adjusting age and energy. Binary logistic regression was run for determining the USDA dietary guidelines after grouping foods as per USDA ‘my pyramid’ and DRI compliers and predictors. This research highlights the socio-demographic disparity in food intake and dietary patterns among Bolivian adolescents.
Dietary habits are one of the most risk factor for development of chronic micro and macro-vascular complications among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This book will assess the effect of dietary habits and socio-demography on glycemic control (HbA1c) and diabetes risk profiles; cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoproteine, high density lipoproteine, blood pressure and body mass index. In addition, it will examine these risk factors on long term complications of T2DM. Aiming to explore some indicator could play an important role in the alteration of glycemic control (HbA1c), diabetic risk profiles and long term complications among T2DM.
The estimate the prevalence of anemia among female secondary students aged 15-18 years old, examine relationship between dietary habits and anemia in the study sample, and identify relationship between anemia and anthropometric indicators. moreover this book evaluate the relationship between anemia, socioeconomic status and demographic regions and relate adolescent anemia to anemia during pregnancy.
Down syndrome (DS) is the most common chromosomal anomaly among live born infants, occurring at a frequency of one in 700 live births. Individuals with DS are at increased risk for several endocrinological conditions, including hypothyroidism, growth retardation, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. The reason for the increased risk of obesity in DS individuals is unclear, but several mechanisms have been suggested, including a decreased resting metabolic rate and differences in physical activity patterns. Obesity and related morbidity and mortality are emerging as important long term consequences, with the increase in the life expectancy of people with DS. Adipokines such as leptin, which is a hormone secreted by adipocytes, acting in the hypothalamus to suppress appetite and regulate body weight, have been implicated in the pathophysiology of obesity. Leptin is a hormone secreted by adipocytes, acting in the hypothalamus to suppress appetite and regulate body weight. In this book we tried to highlight the hormonal key players for the development of obesity in children with Down syndrome.
The book entitled ‘Overweight and Obesity among the Reddis’ is designed to serve as a handy text reference in understanding the risk factors towards degenerative diseases. This book is like a guide and a ready – reckoned. Scholars can understand this in terms of changing societal norms and also this can be used to cross check and compare the information when addressing other caste populations. The book has covered different life style modifications that took place due urbanization/industrialization.
The prevalence of obesity is increasing globally; with nearly half a billion of the world’s population now considered to be overweight or obese. The obesity epidemic is related both to dietary factors and to an increasing sedentary life style. Obesity has significant co-morbidities and there are associated with substantial healthcare and social costs. The health impact of increasing prevalence of obesity among children is a serious concern. Heart diseases and diabetes were rare among children and young adult in the previous century but today supposed to be the disease of the elderly; there diseases are frequently occurring in the younger generation. This study has thus highlighted the need to not only improve the awareness on prevention of obesity among children but need to motivate them to practice healthy life style is utmost essential.
Adolescence is a critical period as the physiological need for nutrients is high relative to energy needs. In addition, eating behavior and lifestyles are formed during this period, which may continue in to adulthood. Interventions to promote healthy nutrition need to occur in adolescence to reverse the adverse health effects of obesity and poor eating habits. Educating children and adolescents can instill positive health behaviors in the early years. Skills-based health education has been shown to make significant contributions to the healthy development of children and adolescents and to have a positive impact on important health risk behaviors. Therefore, this endeavor was undertaken with the objectives to assess dietary knowledge, attitude, behavior among school adolescents in Delhi, to impart the life-skills through training sessions for adopting healthy nutrition behavior among adolescents and to assess the impact of food and nutrition related life-skills training on dietary behavior of the intervention group and compare it with the control group.
Cardiovascular diseases are increasing progressively in Palestine which is the first leading causes of death in the palestine. Anxiety, depression and coronary heart disease are common conditions and often occur together. Anxiety and depressive disorders are common in general population and are particularly prevalent in patients with cardiovascular disease; there is a plausible biological basis to the relation between psychiatric morbidity and cardiovascular disease (Davies et al, 2004). The study was investigating the prevalence of anxiety, depression among coronary artery disease and to know the most common risk factors of coronary artery disease among adults at Al Shifa Hospital in Gaza Strip at 2005. The most common risk factors of coronary artery disease among patients adults were: Lack of physical activity, hypertension, obesity, Diabetes Mellitus, positive family history for coronary heart disease, elevated Triglyceride level in the blood, cigarette smoking, elevated total Cholesterol level in the blood and haply bubble smoking. The prevalence of anxiety among coronary artery disease patients sample was 64.7% and the prevalence of depression was 64.7%
During last two decades, the assumptions of applying risk-based approach to identify the contaminated land and that guideline values for soil contaminants should be based on the risk assessment to human health, have been widely adopted in the developed countries. These assumptions are based on the fact that not all the soil contaminants that expose to human reach to human bloodstreams; only bioavailable portion out of total can enter into human systems. A conservative approach of using total concentration in soil to access the soil pollution would provide a sense that all the contaminant present in soil can enter the human bloodstream upon exposure. Environmental contaminants can be reached to humans in three main exposure pathways; ingestion (dietary and non-dietary), dermal and respiratory pathways. Non-dietary exposure pathway – direct ingestion of soil particles – is a predominant exposure route for soil contaminants. It is an exposure of soil contaminant that adhere to the hand and breathing soil or household dust particles, where coarser particles stuck in throat area, and directly reach into the stomach. This phenomenon is more pronounced among the children due to their hand
Obesity is a major public health problem. It can be defined as an excess accumulation of body fat cells. Obesity is considered the fifth leading risk for global death. At least 2.8 million adults die each year as a result of being overweight or obese. Maternal obesity affect the health of mother in pregnancy and developing fetus that adversely increase risk of gestational diabetes, preeclampsia toxemia, macrosomic baby and birth defect. this study aimed to reveal the effect of maternal obesity on pregnancy outcome. The study found some factors that are associated with adverse maternal outcome. Increasing in obesity degree will risk of hypertensive disorder, gestational diabetes; and having macrosomic new born.the study provides possible intervention strategies that could contribute to reduce effect of maternal obesity on pregnancy outcome.
The labelling of chronic diseases as “diseases of affluence” is no longer valid as they also appear in poorer countries. Paradoxically, it is occurring at a faster rate in developing countries than it did in the industrialized regions of the world half a century ago. This book is based on a field work carried out in a semi-urban area of mid-west Nigeria. The author observed that ignorance and lack of proper health information are substantial impediments to good dietary habits in Africa, not just a lack of money. This research work is of utmost importance as a reference for researchers, students, and health scientists. It is also a rich source of information for the general public as well as an action plan guide for government, health economists, health administrators and policy makers.
Two-thirds of the global disease burden will be attributable to chronic diseases associated with obesity and drive the individuals to many other chronic disease conditions which substantially increase the risk of hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, coronary artery disease, stroke, gallbladder disease and osteoarthritis, as well as cancers of the endometria, breast, prostate, and colon. The non fatal but debilitating health problems associated with obesity are respiratory problems, chronic musculoskeletal problems, skin problems and infertility. Excessive body weight has also been predictable to worsen other medical conditions like knee osteoarthritis, back pain, sleep apnea, gout and related health complications and it is now prevalent among the rural population affecting all the age groups but mostly among women. The book focus on the prevalence and assessment of obesity with contributing factors, knowledge and practice gaps of women who are at-risk of excess weight so that it can help to modify the risk of obesity/weight gain among obese by modifying their lifestyle gradually through intervention.