Tomato is one of the valuable fruit which belongs to the family Solanaceae. People use tomato in various forms like canned tomato paste, tomato juices, tomato ketchup and tomato sauce. Due to increasing standards of living in the cities and the rapid urbanization taking place in the rural areas, consumption of tomato based products is expected to go up steadily. During present study canned tomato paste was irradiated to increase the shelf life. Canned tomato paste was irradiated at two different doses i.e. 1 and 3 kGy. The results of proximate analysis i.e. moisture content, ash content, fat content, carbohydrate content and TSS content were compared with the control sample which was not irradiated. 3kGy dose was considered as an optimized dose after comparing results with reported articles. During 1st week moisture content in canned tomato paste sample radiated with dose 3 kGy was 22g100-1g, ash 2.65 g100-1g, TSS 1.9 brix %, protein 0.1 g100-1g, fat 0 g100-1g and carbohydrate 75.25 g100-1g. During 3rd week moisture content in canned tomato paste sample radiated with dose 3 kGy was 11 g100-1g, ash 2.29 g100-1g, TSS 0.87 brix %, protein 0.06 g100-1g and carbohydrate 94 g100-1g.
Irradiation, as a method of meat preservation, has excellent potential in the elimination of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms from meat and meat products. Knowledge about effect of gamma irradiation on the shelf-life and quality attributes of camel sausage and chicken burger is important to maintain the microbiological safety of these meat products and extend their shelf-life. Camel meat is considered to be one of the toughest kinds of meat, and differs from beef in the higher content of connective tissue. Effect of gamma irradiation on chemical compositions, freshness tests, physicochemical, microbiological examination and sensory evaluation of camel sausage and chicken burger were evaluated in this book. Also gamma irradiation doses (1.5, 3 and 4.5 KGy) and cold preservation were evaluated in camel sausage and chicken burger.
Pakistan is a big market where a huge amount of fruits and vegetables are grown. However, the marketing system is deficient in proper storage facilities and hence considerable post-harvest loss occurs. Pea is a perishable crop therefore it is difficult to store the peas. Food irradiation is the process of intentionally exposing good-quality food to a controlled source of ionizing radiation for such purposes as pathogen reduction, shelf-life extension, and insect disinfestation. Gamma irradiation of foods is an important source of food sterilization as they kill the microorganisms responsible for the spoilage of food. However, there are concerns about the effect of gamma radiation on nutritional value of the irradiated food. Furthermore, it is very important to determine the optimum dose of gamma radiation to achieve this objective. In the present study, peas were exposed to three doses of gamma radiation i.e. 1, 1.5, 2.5 kGy. The nutritional value of peas after radiation was analyzed to determine the change in proximate composition. . In light of result, it was evaluated that 1 kGy is optimized dose that has little effect on the nutritional value of peas.
The effects of gamma irradiation on secondary metabolite production in callus cultures derived from four doses of gamma irradiated seedlings on Andrographis paniculata were studied. The effects of lower doses of gamma irradiation on secondary metabolite production in callus cultures were also examined in Andrographis echiodes, since the seedlings of these species were highly sensitive to higher doses of gamma irradiation. The results of this study indicated that gamma irradiation positively influencedandrographolide production in A.paniculata from the callus cultures. The significant impact of this study was that the callus cultures produced from non-irradiated seedlings showed the absence of andrographolide. The effects of four doses of gamma irradiation on the invitro production of andrographolide from the leaf explants of A.paniculata was studied. An enhanced rate of andrographolide was found in all the doses of samples using HPLC analysis after gamma irradiation. Gamma irradiation promoted the dipterpenoid production when the seedlings of A.echiodes were irradiated with 0.5kR of gamma rays. Further studies at the molecular and genomic level are required to know the exact mechan
There are many factors affecting the quality of resultant paste such as, cultivation regions, harvest seasons, breaking methods and concentration process. This study is carried out in-line plant of Ismailia National Company for Food Industries "Foodico". The obtained results showed that, the tomato fruits from Upper-Egypt contained a significantly higher content of lycopene but also non significant differences in a*/b* values. The harvesting season of tomato fruits had significant effect on the quality parameters of resultant tomato paste. These effects varied among the quality attributes, make the control on these effects is more difficult. The breaking temperature considered as an important factor affected the quality of resultant tomato paste. Concentration process had significant effects on the quality attributes of the resultant tomato paste. The rheological properties and Hunter color parameters of tomato juice during processing to paste had good correlations with pectin fractions contents and pigments concentration. The blanching process had significant effects on the quality of the frozen spinach. It led to decrease the chlorophylls content.
Contamination in produce is of particular concern because produce is often consumed raw. This book highlights pitfalls in foodsafety management and provides key insight into the means of avoiding them. This book covers recent technology for the almonds safety and its affect on microbiological quality that might have an impact on human health. Including almonds data, it also provides comprehensive results after gamma irradiation. It illustrates the effect of gamma treatments on Salmonella enteritidis on almonds.
The present work embodies the results of scientific investigation involving the use of safe radiolysis process for degradation of PCBs; persistent organic pollutants present in used oils by gamma radiation using Co-60 as a radiation source. The work reports the salient aspects of ship breaking activity in India, gamma irradiation of PCBs, gamma irradiation of various oils, method development and validation, determination of PCBs in thermic oils using GC-MS, etc. The aim is to assess the level of destruction of PCBs in standards and oils by gamma irradiation and to determine the optimum dose of irradiation for this purpose. The studies are also directed towards effects of gamma irradiation on properties of oils. The properties of oils before and after irradiation have been studied. The study led to some useful and interesting conclusions which are covered in this book. The development and validation of method of analysis of various PCBs at their trace levels in oils is also the notable achievement of this study.
Gamma Radiation is an effective means of sterilization for shelf life enhancement of food items including fruits and vegetables by killing the microflora responsible for their decay. However there are concerns about the effect of nutritional value of the food after this treatment. Citrus is an important fruit throughout the world and is well known for its nutritional value. Present study focused on the analysis of various nutritional components of citrus after treatment with gamma radiation.
The effect of gamma irradiation on the proximate chemical composition( moisture content , protein , fat, ash) chemical freshness tests (TBA, TVB-N, TMA, FAN, pH) and microbiological changes (total bacterial count, proteolytic bacteria, Enerobacteriaceae, moulds and yeasts counts) occurred in sardine fish and pastirma during cold storage at (4 ± 1 ?C) were fully investigated. Furthermore, the bacterial activity causing the formation of biogenic amines were also studied. In addition, the determination of biogenic amines in sardine fish and pastirma produced by these bacteria were explored. The effects of irradiation doses (1, 3 and 5 kGy) which were applied as a trial to reduce biogenic amines formation in sardine fish and pastirma were also investigated. In addition, the effect of the tested irradiation doses (1, 3 and 5 kGy) on organoleptic properties of the treated sardine fish and pastirma were determined.
The book included study of the disturbances caused as a result of the gamma irradiation. The new researches directed to search in the nature for new natural products rich in antioxidants polyphenolic compounds. The willow leaves were selected to be under study. The book included studying protective effect of the aqueous extract of Willow leaves with all the active ingredients against the biochemical and the molecular disturbances occurred due to the exposure to gamma rays. The study followed the genetic abnormalities transmitted from the irradiated parents to the next generations and studying the antagonistic effect of willow extract against inheritance of these genetic disturbances in rats.
The field of track detection using solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) is being constantly developed for last couple of years. Track detectors are being increasingly used in various fields like Biomedical, Environmental, Anthropological, Nuclear sciences and Space research. For newer and more innovative applications of these detectors a systematic study on the effects of external factors such as exposure to radiation, on their physical and chemical properties is essential. Modifications induced by irradiation may sometimes enable in achieving the desired and improved physical and chemical properties of the detectors for specific use. Acknowledging the importance of this work, an effort has been made through this book, to present a comprehensive account of studies on gamma irradiation effect on different types of polymeric nuclear track detectors.
The book represents experimental work. It is concerned with studying the ameliorative effect of salicin which was isolated from Egyptian willow leaves (Salix suberrata) against the mutagenic effect of irradiation on reproductive organs of both male and female rats. It shows the various abnormalities occurred as a result of irradiation in the different electrophoretic patterns including protein, lipoprotein and zymogram in the male and female reproductive tissues. This was in addition to the study at the molecular level which was represented by studying the genomic DNA fingerprinting in the male and female reproductive organs. The study was supported by showing irradiation effect on the antioxidant enzymes which were separated electrohoretically. The main objective of the study was to optimize salicin as a radioprotector against the mutagenic effect of irradiation on the male and female reproductive tissues in the hope that this compound may be suitable as antioxidative radioprotector to impress radiation-induced oxidative stress and various mutations in male and female rats.
Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important pulse crop grown and consumed all over the world. Chickpea is a good and cheapest source of protein, soluble and insoluble fibres. The aim of the present study was to check the nutritional contents of chickpea, whether gamma radiation effecting the nutritional contents of chickpea or not. The optimized dose of the research work was 0.5kGy. At 0.5kGy the nutritional value of treated chickpea was considered acceptable. As the gamma radiation had significant effect on the shelf life of chickpea without effecting its chemical composition. The results were indicative of the fact that gamma radiation at low doses does not change the fact that gamma radiation at low doses does not change the nutritional value. It was observed that protein, carbohydrates as well as fiber which are the major nutritional components of any food did not affect significantly with gamma radiation. The sensory properties of treated chickpeas were also satisfactory. It was concluded that irradiation treatment can be effectively used to protect decay losses and enhance shelf life.
Grapes are an important agricultural crop which is consumed both in raw form as fresh fruit as well as in many industrial products. the microbes present on the fruit is responsible for the decay of the fruit which result in less shelf life. The present work highlights the significance of gamma radiation in enhancing the shelf life of grapes. The work also focuses on the effect of gamma radiation on nutritional value of grapes.
Tomatoes belong to the Solanaceae (the nightshade family). Lycopersicon esculentum is a perennial plant in the tropics but in northern climates it is grown as an annual. Botanically this vegetable is a fruit (a berry). The tomato is a native of the Peru,Bolivia and Ecuador area of the Andes Mountains. It is found in great varieties and types,which are consumed worldwide, because of its highly nutritious values. Export of tomatoes from Pakistan is less because of post harvest losses. To reduce the post harvest losses,radiation was chosen as a treatment. The present study focused on the effect of Gamma radiation (cobalt-60) on tomatoes in order to check their effect on residing micro flora. For this purpose, micro flora of tomatoes was determined and different doses of radiation were given to tomatoes. The best dose optimizes was 1 kGy that not only reduces the micro flora but also increases the shelf life of tomatoes for a period of 21 days.