A research based book exploring forest-water relationship and the prospects Payment of Ecosystem Services (PES) as an adaptive strategy for Climate Change in India. It has touched many areas where limited research activities have been undertaken and improved understanding of scientific and economic relationships between forest and water. The book importantly points out at the need for changes in the current forest management practices as well as integrating it with water resource management.
Ecosystems worldwide are degrading and depleting. The unsustainable patterns of production and consumption of resources has resulted in resource insecurities, economic and livelihood retardations. The linkages between optimal resources utilization and sustainability have often been missed out. The services that are provided by ecosystems are not just limited to food, fibre and water. However these services are now at threat in matters of quality and quantity, thereby posing challenges to human and resource sustainability. Human society has always shown concern for things they pay for and thus the mechanism of pricing the services of ecosystems evolved. This book on forest ecosystem services and valuation attempts to identify some of the services provided by Sal (Shorea robusta) forests of Ranchi, Jharkhand state (India). The book is segmented into six chapters focusing on concepts, opinions and case study for valuation. The book is targeted to a wider audience such as researchers, academicians, and policy makers.
In most developing countries, the concept of measurement of efficiencies of water and sanitation services has so far been non-existent. This book presents a pioneer effort in evolving frameworks for measuring efficiencies in a sector that affects the quality of lives of millions of people. The book presents Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA), Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), and a Scorecard technique based frameworks for evaluating efficiencies of water supply, wastewater and solid waste management services, exemplified for the case of Madhya Pradesh State in India. The findings relate to identification of indicators for efficiency evaluation of water supply, wastewater, and municipal solid waste management services, computation of inefficiencies, ranking of utilities, identification of benchmarks, and estimation of possible savings. The results have been discussed in the context of sector policy issues. The book will be of use to policy makers, water and sanitation Regulators, water supply managers and administrators, to general public, and to all other sector stakeholders.
This research shows the progress of platforms, strategies, policies and actions in regard with forest ecosystem services in the European Union. It also depicts the trend of science/scientific work after the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Synthesis Report had been published in 2005. It assesses strengths and weaknesses of the main stream of EU policies such as the EU Forestry Strategy and the Forest Action Plan. The research demonstrates many shortages concerning adequate focus on the forest ecosystem services in both domains, EU policy and scientific knowledge. It illustrates that both fields have payed dominant attention to climate change and biodiversity. Indeed, both of these issues have already been part of crucial discussions in the field of environment protection, before forest ecosystem services attracted proper attention. The accomplished research provides some suggestions to bridge the gaps in the field of forest ecosystem services and integrate the results of researches into the policy making process.
In many cities of the developing world, dynamic informal infrastructure services work side by side with formal infrastructure services. Informal urban water service is almost as important as formal water supply in providing adequate water for urban inhabitants. This research tries to contribute to our understanding of informal infrastructure services in cities of developing world, using urban water supply in Metropolitan Jakarta as a case study. An indigenous system of urban water vendors operation, the so-called Sistem Aplus, allows vendors to work in a city while still maintaining their residencies in a village. This fact explains the circular migration phenomena in Jakarta, where temporary farmers in rural areas work and live partly in Jakarta. Informal water vendors operate in a laissez-faire system. They strategize their operations based on markets and consumer behavior. Self-regulation and self-policing among water vendors is the effective means of promoting efficiency and safety within the informal water deliveries. In devising the appropriate regulatory framework, it is important to consider the social and political contexts in which water-supply market will operate.
Growing demand for water services in Kenya's urban slums has for long been addressed through various interventions by NGOs, CBOs and informal small-scale water vendors. With the water sector reforms in Kenya, there is now emphasis on strengthening the pro-poor focus of the sector. With this, institutions have been established to formalize water services: licensed water service providers (WSPs) in large towns; a national WSP regulator namely the Water Services Regulatory Board; and a WSP pro-poor financier namely the Water Services Trust Fund. This study assesses the influence of formalized water provision on the quality of life of urban slum dwellers. It explores the perceived impacts of an operational pilot water project implemented in 2009 by Nairobi Water and Sewerage Company in Kosovo village of Mathare slum, with funding from the Water Services Trust Fund. Variables under review in the study are affordability of water, access to water, quality of water and the water utility's pro-poor focus in water provision. The research findings could act as benchmark to guide the formalization of water services by licensed water utilities in similar urban informal settlements of Kenya.
Wetlands in India have assumed a considerable significance in recent years because of their ecological significance in terms of flood control, water purification, aquatic productivity and microclimatic regulation and as habitats of fish, birds and wild life. This study proposes to identify and assess some critical issues of wetland management in West Bengal, India, with reference to the case of rural wetlands. Here we highlighted nine chapters which include introduction, geomorphology, wetland hydrology, biodiversity and three important wetlands located in rural and urban areas of West Bengal along with management strategies for each wetlands.
The Humbo Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) project is the only project in Ethiopia, amongst multiple burning issues the government is facing in climate change mitigation processes, using Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) for forest regeneration. However its success depends on inclusion and exclusion norms, participation of the local households in forest management, fair sharing of benefits and costs, status of institutional setup and intuition of property rights. Therefore, regular participants gain more share than irregular participants and, distribution and sharing of benefits and costs are not perfectly equitable. In addition to that levels of participation negatively determined by gender, agro-ecology, level of annual net benefit share, distance to forest site, unwillingness to invest the fund on public goods and other source of income while attending on meeting and literacy level increased participation thereby increasing annual earrings of local households. Furthermore, the highest benefit shares from forest regeneration using CDM of PES goes to the rich households and the poor earn less for their fair share of labor.
Water is essential component for sustainable development and poverty alleviation. But due to the high rate of population growth and uncontrolled urban expansion in the towns/cities of developing countries the water supply system is under heavy pressure to meet the growing demand of the communities. The study is an appraisal of the impacts of urban expansion on water supply system in Adigrat town of Tigray national state, Ethiopia. Descriptive research method was employed for the study. Population is growing at fast rate in the town, this is due to increase result from natural growth, rural-urban migration, and high influx of population due from Eritrea and reclassification of rural land to urban use and emergence of new periphery settlements are observed. This phenomena is problematic form the town water supply services. To prevent the emergence of new settlements, establish an integrated legal basis and strengthen cooperative environment with all concerned stakeholders and recharging water by the natural aquifer, construction of additional public water points in the newly developed areas and controlling water loss.
Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) is an economic conservation tool which has recently gained much attention. It is believed to show a lot of promise in managing natural resources by incentivizing stakeholders to mutually agree on behavioral change which is more sustainable. The environmental impacts of these behavioural changes are quantified and the changes in behaviour rewarded. The state of Uttarakhand, India, forms a part of the Southern Himalayan slope bordering Nepal on the East and China (Tibet) on the North. The state is adversely impacted by changing climate patterns, fluctuations in rainfall and an overall warming trend in the region. At times, natural springs are the only source of drinking water for villages. This book addresses the problem of these springs drying up and it analyses whether payments for ecosystem services can prove to be a viable solution to not only revive the springs but also to manage them sustainably in the future.
In order to achieve the perceived benefits of economic regulation of urban water services in Sub-Saharan Africa, and subject to conducive and appropriate political and socio-economic environment, the more appropriate institutional arrangements is an autonomous regulatory agency. The autonomy of the regulatory agency will be enhanced if it has its own legal status, and is able to develop, manage and control its own budget financed from a regulatory fee charged on the regulated water providers. Governments should be willing to relinquish regulatory decision making powers to this non-political and non-governmental body. The reporting and appointing mechanisms for the board could also have an influence on the autonomy of the regulator. Economic regulation of urban water services is a necessary but perhaps not sufficient condition for efficient and effective delivery of urban water services. It is not a panacea to the enormous problems of urban water services but can play a very effective role
Water supply and sanitation service are the most important elements for the survival of human beings. On the other hand, the number of world population is exceedingly increasing from time to time particularly in the urban area because of natural population growth and different socioeconomic factors in the rural areas and small towns. This creates big challenges in the provision of urban services particularly water supply and sanitation service predominantly in developing countries
India is very rich in inland wetland resources. The importance of wetlands, along with ground water resources, in meeting the ever-increasing demands of fresh water is highly appreciated. Besides, the wetland-oriented economic activities are also increasing day by day. The chapter 1 describes some general overview, distribution and importance of wetlands. The chapter 2 covers a detail discussion on impact of socio-economic in different activities and a review of historical work in the field of ‘Wetlands’. The chapters 3, 4, and 5 have been discussed of three different types of wetlands located in West Bengal including their perceptions in the evaluation process of wetland through management strategies as well as water quality scenario. The overall conclusions and recommendations of participatory management of ecosystem services have been described in chapter 6
Forest management practices in the tropics have over the years aimed at timber production for economic benefits. Silvicultural interventions involving series of operations including logging were used to favour desired species for high-value end use.However,emerging issues calls for forest management approaches suitable for meeting challenges posed by climate change and the need for enhanced ecosystem services.Ghana’s forests and wildlife policy recognized these demands and therefore proposed a shift in focus to manage forests for multiple benefits. However,there is a dearth of information relating to how broadened management goals could be achieved.In this book a study on the impacts on carbon sequestration and biological diversity of tree species are evaluated for the three main silvicultural systems practised in Ghana.The study also explored the use of GIS and remote sensing techniques in forest carbon mapping.This book was written for forest managers and environmental policy makers in meeting current and emerging demands of forest management to climate change mitigation and biodiversity conservation.It is also useful to university students and researchers
Our environment is providing various ecosystem services to human being which are created naturally or enhanced through various interventions of its managers. Practice of valuation and payment to managers of those ecosystem services and well addressed benefit sharing mechanism is rarely seen in least developed countries including Nepal. Thus not only the Begnas Lake all the wetlands of Nepal are degraded day by day. Payment for ecosystem services ensures the long term supply of services which creates win-win situation between producer and users of those services. This report which was based on the research study conducted in the Begnas Lake, Nepal insight how the payment mechanism gives satisfactory situation to both service users and managers. Maximum respondents are ready to imply the Payment for Ecosystem mechanism as the conservation model in Begnas Lake. This report develops a Payment for Environmental Services framework to link upstream and downstream users for wise use and sustainable management of Begnas Lake Area wetland resources.