Productivity analysis is currently one of the major research areas in economics. A greater concern would be the long-term sustainable growth in productivity. This growth depends on several factors, such as the quantitative expansion of physical capital per worker, and total factor productivity growth, which measures improvement in qualitative aspects of labour and capital inputs, and the efficiency with which these inputs work together. The concept of Green Productivity is drawn from the integration of two important developmental strategies viz. productivity improvement and environmental protection. Productivity provides the framework for continuous improvement while environmental protection provides the foundation for sustainable development. Therefore, Green Productivity is a strategy for enhancing productivity and environmental performance for overall socio-economic development. This book is intended to be an empirical research attempt to extend productivity measure by taking into account pollutant emissions into production function as un-priced inputs, which have been ignored in most previous studies.
This book provides a through description of organised manufacturing sector. It is mainly concentrated on employment generation that includes total employees, workers and non-workers. This book also inter-relates wage rate with productivity and employment, productivity and elasticity of substitution with growth in manufacturing sector. Unique features of the book that make it exclusive in approach:- 1.Use of original and practical data to produce the theoretical outcomes.Employment Generation & Productivity In Organised Manufacturing Sector 2. Systematic analysis of various factors affecting the employment generation by using adequate econometric models.
The investigation of productivity improvement method in manufacturing firms consists of two major aspects. The scientific approach is concerned with the development of a methodology for productivity improvement appropriate to the situation of manufacturing firms in Ethiopia. Two models, a productivity factor model and a productivity measurement model have been developed for use with productivity improvement method. Second, it is supported by practice-oriented work in the manufacturing firms, consisting of data acquisition activities in general, and of case studies in selected firms in order to assemble, analyze and evaluate specific data on productivity problems, and to test the results obtained. The productivity improvement method (PIM) is developed by considering both the theoretical and empirical study results. The PIM consists of four phases and nine steps having a number of major tasks. The tools, formats, and templates used in the productivity improvement method (PIM) have been designed so that they can be applied without detailed knowledge of the complex mechanisms of the productivity problems in manufacturing firms.
The most pressing need for rapid industrialisation of developing countries is to achieve the basic objectives of their economic and social progress. Therefore, industrialisation plays a crucial role in the process of economic development of developing economies.The present book analyses production structure, technical efficiency and Total Factor Productivity (TFP) growth in Indian manufacturing sector during pre and post reform period. Indian manufacturing sector will play a more dynamic role for sustainable development in the years to come through effective implementation of modernization and technology upgradation, better industrial infrastructural facilities, cost effectiveness, encouragement of public and private investment in research and development etc. Also the competitiveness of Indian manufacturing sector can be improved by increasing its productivity and technical efficiency so that this sector acts as a catalyst of socially inclusive and regionally balanced growth in the reformed era.
The tribal artisans of the Jharkhand state of India utilize the minimum possible infrastructure and resources for manufacturing the artefacts. They are trapped in the vicious circle of unproductive production system – low quality artefacts with low productivity and hence low revenue. In order to come out of this, it is necessary that they must exert effort at all fronts. The book describes different case studies of rural metal artefacts manufacturing units of Jharkhand state and the different problems associated with these units in the area of technology, marketing and workplace. In this book suggestion for the improvements in the problem areas has been discussed.
Starting in the late 1970s, the Indian authorities implemented a series of reforms aimed at exposing the economy to greater competition and at liberalizing key aspects of economic activity. This paper compares productivity trends in Indian Manufacturing sector, pre and post reforms years. Using the data from Annual Survey of Industries, the entire study period (1973-74 to 2004-05) is divided into two sub-periods: pre-reform period, i.e. 1973-74 to 1990-91, and post-reform period, i.e. 1991-92 to 2004-05. Using the Malmquist Productivity Index to measure Total factor Productivity growth in Indian Manufacturing, the results show that liberalization has had a negative impact on the productivity of the Indian Manufacturing sector at aggregate as well as disaggregate level.
The paper analyze the trend of industrial indicator like number of factory, number of persons engaged, total emoluments, net fixed capital, gross output, and gross value added. It is also analyzed the labour productivity, capital productivity and total factor productivity of manufacturing sector in India. The Parametric method is used to analyze the data. The techniques like partial productivity index, Tran slog index of TFP and exponential growth rate were used. The objective of the research paper is to analyze the productivity of manufacturing sector in India during the pre an post reform period.
This monograph provides some empirical results on growth behaviour of output, employment and productivity in manufacturing industries in West Bengal and Gujarat over 1970 to 2002. The empirical analysis proceeds by analysing, first, the contrasting features of overall growth and structural changes between the states. Overall employment structure and the incidence of casualisation of workforce are explored by utilising NSS data of different rounds on Employment and Unemployment Situation in India. By applying the theory of cointegration and vector autoregressive analysis on the ASI data, this study examines the role of manufacturing growth on overall economic growth and also on employment growth in manufacturing in these two states. Stochastic production frontier model has been employed in a panel data frame to provide some empirical estimates of productive efficiency and technical change in the factory sector across two-digit manufacturing industries. The distributional aspect of growth is captured by investigating both the regional and sectoral aspects of pay inequality. A marked dissimilarity in growth pattern and structural changes between West Bengal and Gujarat is observed.
Industrialization has been embraced by many developing countries as a means of achieving structural transformation of the economies. In Kenya, the goal to industrialize has long been held as a strategy for economic development. It has received emphasis as the main strategy for addressing the principal challenges of development in Kenya; employment creation and poverty eradication. While Kenya inherited a relatively well established manufacturing sector at independence in 1963, the sector’s overall performance has been rather dismal. The share of the manufacturing sector in GDP has recorded little changed over the last three decades. At the same time, the sector which was expected to play a critical role in Vision 2030's ambition of the country’s development and growth process has not been dynamic enough to effectively play this role. Consequently, this book entails a study to examine Kenya’s manufacturing sector; it empirically analyzes the total factor productivity change using the latest firm level data for the period 2000-2003. The study also decomposes it into efficiency and technical changes while using data envelopment analysis (DEA) to derive Malmquist productivity indices.
The Single Minute Exchange of Die (SMED) is one important lean tool to reduce waste and improve flexibility in manufacturing processes allowing lot size reduction and manufacturing flow improvements. SMED reduces the non-productive time by streamlining and standardizing the operations for exchange tools, using simple techniques and easy applications. However the process doesn’t give the specific actions to implement which can result in overlooking improvements. To overcome this, common statistical and industrial engineering tools can be integrated in the SMED approach to improve SMED implementation results. In the present work, experiments were carried out to reduce the setup time and tool change time this are important factors which will take lot of time of the production in an automobile factory. The applicability of the proposed SMED approach was tested for shaping machines changeovers in the automotive industry.
The Book deals with the productivity, growth, cost function, Sources of Productivity, Efficiency of labor of Rubber Products manufacturing industries during the Liberalization Era in All India and Kerala state level. The study reveals that the liberalization program initiated for the rapid growth and productivity of the manufacturing sector does not make any improvement in the manufacturing sector especially in the rubber products manufacturing sector in all India and Kerala. The Cost function analysis explains that during the study period the industry works under diminishing returns of scale. The Total factor productivity growth was also declined during the liberalization period. The technological growth was also found negative during the study period. The technological growth was declined worst in Kerala state.
Considering disaggregated data on Indian manufacturing at two- & three-digit levels, provided by Annual Survey of Industries during 1970-71 to 2001-02, a performance related overview is constructed to observe whether the feat of Indian industries has generated sufficient growth potential in terms of industrial output. A dummy-variable approach is adopted here. The study also focuses on the effects of trade-liberalization policies on output growth process by estimating break points & examining its occurrence & persistence level in pre- or post-liberalization era by employing unit-root hypothesis. For analyzing cost-competitiveness of an industry, measurement of technical efficiency is done by employing Stochastic Frontier Production function approach & extent of total factor productivity growth is examined by non-parametric approach of Data Envelopment Analysis. Inter-industrial variation is observed regarding the explanatory factors responsible for movements of technical efficiency & total factor productivity growth of different industries. The policy prescriptions should focus on the specific broad objectives: whether to endorse efficiency or productivity of a particular industry.
The main aim of this book is to determine to what extent did quality management practices been effectively adopted and implemented by Pakistani manufacturing companies as well as to identify best practices for adoption by such companies. The book investigates the relationship between quality management (QM) and productivity. The research conducted within this book revealed that there is a positive relationship between quality and productivity of manufacturing companies. The evidence deduced from the research shows that foreign owned companies performed better compared to local owned companies in terms of quality and productivity in Pakistan. Furthermore, the evidence from this study also points out that, automobile sector in Pakistan performed well in the adoption and implementation of QM practices.
The New Economic Policy announced in year 1991 laid emphasis on liberalisation,privatisation and globalisation.Main objective of new economic policy is to promote competition and efficiency. Industrialisation has been viewed as an economic process by which structural transformation of subsistence economy can be achieved.The Productivity performance enhance the international competitiveness of the country.The present book analyze the productivity trends in manufacturing sector of punjab state,and to evaluate the impact of economic reforms on productivity growth in manufacturing sector of punjab.In order to elevate the productivity growth in state,it is imperative to speed up the flow of incentives and resources toward this state.The fine tuning of ongoing liberalisation,privatisation and globalisation programme is thus need to improve the efficiency of factor inputs in the punjab manufacturing sector.