Endothelial dysfunction can be defined as the partial or complete loss of balance between vasoconstrictors and vasodilators, growth promoting and inhibiting factors, pro-atherogenic and anti-atherogenic factors, and pro-coagulant and anti-coagulant factors . Endothelial dysfunction occurs in various states such as Diabetes, Hypertension, Obesity, Hyperlipidimia, Atherosclerosis, Metabolic Syndrome (Insulin resistant states). The coexistence of obesity, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, is termed as Insulin Resistance Syndrome (IRS, Metabolic Syndrome, Syndrome X). Clinical diagnosis of IRS can be made according to the recently proposed criteria by an expert panel of National Cholesterol Education Programme (NCEP), Adult Treatment Panel III. From the clinical perspective endothelial cell function can be estimated invasively i.e. coronary catheterization or non invasively i.e. ultrasound changes in blood flow. Endothelial dysfunction in the brachial artery highly correlates with endothelial dysfunction in the coronary circulation, which is emerging as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease .
The association between hypertension, obesity and hyperlipidemia is well established. Undoubtedly one of the most important risk factors for hypertension is obesity and all overweight and obese persons are at risk for hypertension, high blood cholesterol, type 2 diabetes, and coronary heart disease.A cluster of metabolic factors that increase the risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is called "metabolic syndrome". Afflicted individuals may by defined by the presence of three of the following five characteristics: central obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein levels,hypertension, and either impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes. World is currently facing the silent epidemic of metabolic syndrome. Efficay of Safoof-e-muhazzil,a classical unani antiobesity formulation based on the observations in clinical trial raises its scope of utility beyond obesity And perhaps may pave the way for development of a single formulation which will take care of all co-morbidities of metabolic syndrome which is gaining epidemic proportions world over.
Up-to-date, reliable information about Tourette Syndrome and related disorders for teachers and parents Children with TS are often teased and punished for the unusual yet uncontrollable symptoms of their disorder. Academic failure is common. The Tourette Syndrome/OCD Checklist helps parents and teachers to better understand children and youth with TS and/or OCD and provide the support and interventions these children need. Presented in a simple, concise, easy-to-read checklist format, the book is packed with the latest research, practical advice, and information on a wide range of topics. Provides a wealth of information on Tourette Syndrome, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, and related conditions Includes strategies for discipline and behavior management, advice on supporting and motivating kids with TS and OCD, homework tips, and more Shows how to educate peer students about TS and OCD Loaded with practical information, strategies, and resources, this book helps parents and teachers to better understand Tourette Syndrome and OCD and shows how every individual can reach their potential in school and in life.
The book is intended for a wide range of readers - endocrinologists, cardiologists, neurologists, gynecologists, psychiatrists, psychologists, dieticians, general practitioners, medical students, specializing doctors and patients with obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus. The monography contains data of the author’s research on neurotrophines, mast cells, chronic inflammatory and psychoemotional distress, changes in salivary glands and thyroidea, chormonal disbalance in metabolic syndrome. By revealing little-known scientific facts about NGF and etiopathogenetic mechanisms of development of cardio-metabolic disease, this book provides an answer to the ways of successful treatment of the abovementioned socially significant diseases.
Globally, obesity has reached epidemic proportions. Several co-morbidities co-exist with obesity and affect multiple peripheral tissues. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the leading cause of obesity associated chronic liver disease in the US. The molecular mechanisms underlying the development and the progression of NAFLD remain poorly understood. Stomach is an important endocrine organ that produces a number of bioactive peptides with important roles in the metabolism of energy. Stomach is located in the vicinity of the liver, but so far it has been largely neglected as an organ with potentially important role in obesity and associated NAFLD. This study provides the evidence for the contribution of the stomach-specific expression changes in a number of molecules previously implicated in inflammation and energy homeostasis to the pathogenesis of obesity-associated NAFLD. In contrast to white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT) has the unique ability to dissipate energy by mitochondrial “uncoupling” facultatively. In this study, the expression of brown adipocyte-specific genes was assessed as quantitative indicator of BAT activity in adipose of adult humans.
Acne is one of the major manifestations in patient with PCOS. Although acne is detected only in about 23-35% of patients with PCOS, some studies show a high prevalence of PCOS in acne patients. Acne has an overall prevalence in women of about 12%, tends to persist till menopause, and then declines with age.Hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and hyperandrogenemia are some endocrine findings in adults with PCOS.Hyperandrogenism characterized clinically as Acne, Hirsutism, Androgenic alopecia and/or chronic anovulation in the absence of specific adrenal and/or pituitary disease. Clinically, diagnosed woman with PCOS has higher risk for infertility, dysfunctional bleeding, endometrial carcinoma, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and possibly cardiovascular disease. So to prevent risk factors associated with PCOS,it has to be diagnosed and treated earlier. Female with Acne are unaware that they may suffer from PCOS. So Acne patients coming to dermatologist must be diagnosed for PCOS,so that they can be treated at early stage and risk factors of PCOS can be prevented.
This book draws conclusion on the increasingly high burden of overweight and obesity among the children in a developing country setting. Obesity prevalence is found to be highest among the boys, children belonging to the middle income families and those in the younger age groups. The determinants of the obesity exist within the home and school environment. Children are spending an alarmingly large part of their daily time on sedentary activities, mostly on television. Having minimal physical activity opportunities both at school and home and easier access to energy rich fast foods are found to be the major determinants of obesity. Children who are poor in sports and those who want to loose weight were very obese indicating that there is an unmet need as far as sports opportunities is concerned. The consumption of fruits is associated with protection against obesity a factor that emphasizes towards healthier eating in daily life.
Obesity can be considered as a chronic disorder of energy imbalance, in which a long-term excess of energy intake over expenditure leads to the storage of that excess energy as adipose tissue. This study aimed to investigate whether childhood obesity in primary school girls affects the levels of measured hormones, peptides and neurotransmitters as well as their cognitive function and to study the relationships between the measured biochemical parameters and cognitive function in those girls. Childhood obesity represents a serious health problem. Obesity could induce a disturbance in the levels of the vital hormones especially GH and IGF-1. In addition, obese status in girls at this young age is associated with worse cognitive function which reflects the impact of obesity on educational achievement and learning ability in these girls. This may afford an aid in manipulating childhood obesity and developing strategies for treatment of this disease.
The optimal exercise load/intensity for exercise programs for individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS) has not been investigated. One method of determining optimal exercise load is to measure the blood lactate transition threshold (BLTT), referred to as the anaerobic threshold (AT). The first part of this thesis investigated the reproducibility of BLTT testing and the consequent determination of AT via the Mader method and a modified form of the ADAPT method in patients with MetS. Physical activity has been identified as a therapeutic goal and is recommended for the management of MetS. Currently exercise guidelines for MetS are the same as those for obesity with consideration given to the presence of any CVD risk factors. Yet, MetS is a multi-faceted disease and the effect of specific exercise protocols on the different components of MetS has not been investigated. Therefore, the main aim of this PhD study was to design an exercise program to optimize exercise responses and improve metabolic characteristics in individuals with metabolic syndrome. The blood lactate transition threshold (BLTT) referred to as the anaerobic threshold (AT), was used to optimize the exercise response.
Trends during the past 20 years have revealed a dramatic increase in childhood obesity in the United States. At present, approximately nine million children over 6 years of age are considered obese According to American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) the protocol for obesity care for youth is to monitor the body mass index (BMI) routinely (at least annually) and offer appropriate counseling and guidance to children and their families. A report in the literature indicated that the number of children attending yearly well-child visits that include measurement of BMI is well below the AAP recommendation. The dramatic increase in childhood obesity raises the question of what is the healthcare provider’s level of involvement in prevention, identification, and treatment of childhood obesity, and the prevalence of childhood obesity. The purpose of this retrospective exploratory design was to examine the number and content of well-child visits in children 6-11 years of age and describe the difference in attendance and content of the healthcare visit based on type of provider.
Childhood obesity is a condition where excess body fat negatively affects a child's health or well-being. Due to the rising prevalence of obesity in children and its many adverse health effects, it is being recognized as a serious public health concern. The greatest risk factor for child obesity is the obesity of both parents. The escalation of obese children is due to the upsurge of technology, increase in snacks and portion size of meals, and the decrease in the physical activity of children. So, the most important issue here is to increase the physical activity and avoiding the sedentary life.
Structure Language Program is a beginning intervention program for parents and professionals. It has been used extensively with children with Down syndrome, autism spectrum disorders, severe language impairments, and intellectually disabled. Initially, it starts with selecting beginning vocabulary words and goes through multiple word combinations. Each step contains specific directions on how to introduce the word along with suggested carry-over activities.
This book is aims to investigate the association of hormonal axes changes with oxidative stress in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)patients due to terrorists attacks in comparison with healthy people in Iraq.It gives an idea about neuroendocrinology of PTSD, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) hormonal axis, hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid (HPT) hormonal axis, hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) hormonal axis, and hypothalamic-pituitary-prolactin (TPP) hormonal axis in general and in particular in PTSD patients. Also, this book illustrates the concept of oxidative stress and its correlation with hormonal axes hormones in PTSD patients.
The prevalence of obesity is increasing globally; with nearly half a billion of the world’s population now considered to be overweight or obese. The obesity epidemic is related both to dietary factors and to an increasing sedentary life style. Obesity has significant co-morbidities and there are associated with substantial healthcare and social costs. The health impact of increasing prevalence of obesity among children is a serious concern. Heart diseases and diabetes were rare among children and young adult in the previous century but today supposed to be the disease of the elderly; there diseases are frequently occurring in the younger generation. This study has thus highlighted the need to not only improve the awareness on prevention of obesity among children but need to motivate them to practice healthy life style is utmost essential.
This work studies the ?thiology of the most severe injury in the female handball population. It follows three main lines of research that interact among themselves. A first one attempts to characterise the injury incidence and profile of this population. About 1/3 of all the Portuguese female handball players were sampled retrospectively and/or prospectively throughout 3 sport seasons. The main conclusion is that ACL ruptures are, among the severe injuries, the most occurring ones. A second one attempts to compare statistically the muscular force changes and the ACL injury risk. A strong ACL injury risk predictor is the hamstrings peak torque. A third one consisted in a comparison of the monthly changes in the serum hormonal contents of a few players with both the lower limb muscular strength and the anterior knee laxity. Only a faint correlation could be seen between the hormonal levels and the knee laxity. These findings are mainly negative results but are strong enough for building the hypothesis of a decisive role of the practice load on the risk and prevention of ACL injuries.