This book is aims to investigate the association of hormonal axes changes with oxidative stress in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)patients due to terrorists attacks in comparison with healthy people in Iraq.It gives an idea about neuroendocrinology of PTSD, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) hormonal axis, hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid (HPT) hormonal axis, hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) hormonal axis, and hypothalamic-pituitary-prolactin (TPP) hormonal axis in general and in particular in PTSD patients. Also, this book illustrates the concept of oxidative stress and its correlation with hormonal axes hormones in PTSD patients.
Lalonde and Chandler (1995) examined the relationship between social behaviour as determined by teacher ratings on a questionnaire and performance on theory of mind tasks related to the understanding of false belief. Their subjects were normal pre-schoolers. The study reported here used the methodology of Lalonde and Chandler (1995) to investigate the relationship between social behaviour and understanding of false belief in six school-aged boys with Asperger's Syndrome. No clear outcome on the relationship was obtained although greater understanding was seen to relate to age.
The determinants of the obesity lie within the home and school environment and the overall sociocultural phenomena. Children are spending an alarmingly large part of their daily time on sedentary activities, mostly on television. Having minimal physical activity opportunities both at school and home and easier access to energy rich fast foods are the major determinants of obesity. All the stakeholders in the society; government, education and health authorities, city planners and managers, transport, religious leaders and policy makers at the national and local level must realize that the childhood obesity has become a serious problem in Pakistani society. A major responsibility falls on the parents who have to provide the children healthiest possible environment available in the area. This is also true in terms of helping the children avail any opportunity to play and preventing the children from eating unhealthy high calorie-poor nutrition foods. Further studies are required to see the effects of exposure to other factors in addition to physical activity.
The study focused on the strategies teachers used to manage inappropriate behaviors of learners with Asperger’s Syndrome. These are learners who exhibit inappropriate behaviors like self-injurious, aggression, repetitive behavior which includes obsessions and perseverations, stereotypes, lack of social or emotional reciprocity among others. These challenging behaviors are frequently the primary obstacles in supporting learners with Asperger’s Syndrome in schools. The purpose of the research was to identify types of behaviors exhibited by these learners, examine challenges teachers encountered when managing inappropriate behaviors, and assess classroom adaptations put in place to promote appropriate behaviors among learners with Asperger’s Syndrome in schools in Kisumu County, which was the study area. The study was based on the Theory of Mind which was drawn from Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development. This theory says, a child is supposed to develop some skills for social interaction, communication, and imagination before school going age but children with Asperger’s miss this, although they have developed language.
Speech and language acquisition is a prerequisite to oral communication. Studies have shown that there is a natural chronological age and time when most children acquire this skills. However, a child who fails to follow this progression is considered to have speech delay. This work, like many others, established that Down's Syndrome and Cerebral palsy conditions lead to speech problems. However, the speech later develops due to among other things, maturity and the communication needs that emerge. That a variety of complementary intervention techniques to help correct the situation are in application in the school curriculum, the sole purpose being to make this children communicate their basic needs and to become better members of the community. The contents of this book target all stake holders in the education sector and parents of such children.
Metabolic syndrome(MS)is a cluster of diseases each of which carries grave risk for severe vascular events. There is paucity of report on the presence and features of MS among Nigerians and Africans with type 2 diabetes mellitus(DM). The study determined the prevalence of MS among Nigerians with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the clinical and biochemical features of MS among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The relationship between MS and the control of diabetes mellitus and blood pressure was also evaluated. Four hundred and eight patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus attending the medical outpatient department of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), Lagos were screened for the prevalence of MS. Out of 408 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus screened for MS, 210 (51.5%)had MS.Patients with MS were older than those without MS. The prevalence of MS among Nigerians with type 2 DM is high, and the family history of triad of obesity, hypertension and most frequent component of MS is truncal obesity. Control of hypertension was poor among patient with MS.
Pediatric overweight is an especially severe problem because its childhood onset increases the overall length of exposure to the detrimental effects of overweight, accelerates the onset of chronic disease, and affects children’s physical, psychological, and social development. Several parental traits have been shown to be associated with an increased risk for childhood overweight. In our study, entitled “Determinants of the Prevalence and Intervention to Prevent of Child Obesity”, we quantified the mutual effects of environmental, parental education and income on the risk of obesity in a large population-based sample. The results of this study provide important information for health educators. We have identified the children of highly educated, income parents as a group to be targeted for overweight prevention and intervention efforts. Parents who are at higher SES may be warned that not only is their own health at stake but their children is also at increased risk for obesity and their associated diseases. We also added the interventions to prevention of child obesity with various systematic methods, which much help to individual, family base and also school programmes.
AIDS, or Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, is a highly lethal, progressively epidemic viral infection that destroys the immune system, increasing the individual’s susceptibility to infectious disease and cancer. Proper and essential oral health care is necessary for people living with HIV/AIDS because they can suffer numerous unique oral conditions associated with this disease. It is our responsibility as a professionals to provide people living with HIV/AIDS the essential services they need. The entire dental team must share this perception as we all play a key role in health promotion and good oral health. The authors believes that the book will serve the much expected purpose of inspiring students, teachers,,clinicians, and others interested in the management of HIV/AIDS in periodontal practice.
As a disease with many unknown details in etiology and pathogenesis, and treatment with limited efficiency Multiple sclerosis still remains in the focus of the scientific interest. The incidence of MS is increasing worldwide and in women more than in men with the female:male ratio now approaching 4:1 The present book contains an extensive overview of the recent findings about the role of the female sex hormones and cytokines in the pathogenesis and course of MS and the results of author`s own study on the profile of female sex steroids and cytokine serum concentrations in women with relapsing-remitting MS. Very interesting data about the dynamics of the investigated parameters in different clinical phases of the disease and their correlations with the degree of disability are discussed in the context of immunomodulatory effects of estrogenes and progesterone.
The study was carried out to cephalometrically evaluate the morphology of cranial base, midface and dental characteristics in subjects with Down?s syndrome and to compare the same with that of normal. The growth of cranial base and maxilla was also evaluated. As the thorough knowledge of the craniofacial morphology and dental characteristics help the orthodontist in arriving at a more accurate diagnosis about orthodontic problems. The attempt of our study is to give an idea about the craniofacial morphology in individuals with Down?s syndrome, which will help us to understand the basic morphological characteristics of these individuals. This will lead us to reach a proper diagnosis and treatment planning.
Asperger's Syndrome For Dummies covers everything that both people living with the condition and their families need to know. From explaining symptoms and getting a diagnosis, through to overcoming bullying in schools and choosing between the therapy and medical treatments available, this is a complete guide to surviving and thriving with the condition. Asperger's Syndrome For Dummies includes: Part I: Understanding Asperger's syndrome (AS) Chapter 1: Introducing Asperger's syndrome Chapter 2: Discovering the causes of Asperger's syndrome Chapter 3: Diagnosing Asperger's syndrome Part II: Living with Asperger's syndrome Chapter 4: Enjoying Life with Asperger's Chapter 5: Getting the most out of education and the workplace Chapter 6: Finding independence and advocating for your rights Part III: Supporting people with Asperger's syndrome Chapter 7: Parenting and Asperger's syndrome Chapter 8: Relating to adults with Asperger's syndrome Chapter 9: Creating an AS friendly environment Part IV: Discovering therapies, medication, diet and environments for AS Chapter 10: Navigating Behavioural Therapies for Asperger's Syndrome Chapter 11: Understanding medication and diet in Asperger's syndrome Part V: Part of Tens Chapter 12: Ten Organisations to go for help and information Chapter 13: Ten positives about living with Asperger's Chapter 14: Ten famous people who probably had Asperger's
The metabolic syndrome is a complex cardiometabolic cluster characterized by hyperinsulinaemia, low glucose tolerance, dyslipidaemia, hypertension and obesity. It represents a significant marker of increased risk for both cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. To fight efficiently the forecasted type 2 diabetes and its cardiovascular and metabolic complications, evidence-based strategies, focusing on target groups at risk, are needed to tailor prevention programs. In this context, the overall aim of this work was to investigate, for the first time, the epidemiological profile of the metabolic syndrome, its variations and its potential socioeconomic, behavioral and biological determinants among the adult population residing in Luxembourg. Such data should offer new possibilities for successful intervention to prevent and treat the metabolic syndrome before the coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes develop in susceptible individuals and groups.
Overweight and obesity have reached epidemic proportions worldwide and affect over 300 million people. Strategies of weight management include lifestyle modification, medical treatment and alternative therapy. The role of diet in weight management and how it compares with other interventions is reviewed in this thesis. Alternative strategies are also discussed. Modifications in diet and physical activity are crucial at all levels of management. A high-carbohydrate, low-fat, high protein and high fiber energy-deficient diet is a potentially effective dietary strategy. Physical exercise alone is more effective at preventing weight regain than promoting weight loss. Classic and cognitive behavior therapy commonly complement diet and physical activity. Pharmacotherapy is indicated for overweight patients with concomitant comorbidities and obese individuals. Bariatric surgery is efficacious for weight loss for class 2 obese patients with serious comorbidities and those with class 3 obesity. Dietary patterns, low GI and low energy-dense diets as well as other novel medicines need consideration as alternative strategies for weight management in future.
Cardiorenal syndrome is an emerging clinical entity which includes vast array of interrelated derangements between heart and kidneys. Several studies of adult patients have reported that worsening of renal function in patients with heart failure is common and is recognized as an independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality. The relationship between heart and kidney is more complex, importantly renal function may serve as one of the most important determinint of prognosis in patients with acute heart failure.Few pediatric studies have reported development of renal insufficiency in children with heart failure, this book therefore provide awareness of this co-dependency , which inturn will help us to identify the frequency of this syndrome in our population, so that early intervention can be done to decrease the morbidity and mortality in this increasingly common condition in children. This book would be especially useful to professionals in cardiology, nephrology and pediatrics.