Renewable energy is natural energy which does not have a limited supply and can be used again and again. In recent years, these energies (mostly wind energy) have been one of the fastest growing additions to power networks in many countries. It is due to advance in technology and it''s green nature. But this increase in wind energy might lead to challenging situations concerning reactive power and voltage control issues in both transmission and distribution network. This book, therefore, explains the procedure in extracting the kinetic energy from wind energy via wind turbines and the ability to control these voltage and reactive power issues. With the ability to control voltage and reactive power in wind energy, wind farms will be an ideal source of green energy for 21st century. This book could be useful to professionals who are dealing with wind turbines and green energy technology and to those who are working for the future challenges in power networks.
In this book shows a novel control approach of a three phase grid connected wind energy conversion system, incorporating a maximum power point tracker for dynamic active power generation jointly with reactive power compensation of distribution utility systems has been presented. Thus the five level multilevel inverter topology were chosen based on what has gone before, even if that topology may not be the best choice for the application. Several multilevel voltage source inverters and their modulation topologies are introduced. The cascaded-inverter with separated dc sources is discussed in detail with results to verify the proposed concepts. The improved capabilities of the grid-connected WECS to rapidly exchange active power with the electric system, simultaneously and independently of the reactive power exchange, permit to greatly enhance the operation and control of the electric system.
This book represents different types of renewable energy, the behavior of renewable energy.The world is hunger of energy. The conventional energy is decreasing day by day. The use and necessity of renewable energy is discussed with respect to all over the world. A wind farm consists of several wind turbines.It is essential to connect the wind farm. Wind energy and wind firm are also discussed then it covers essential topics about wind turbine systems such as wind turbine generation system, wind power output, mechanical power extracted from wind.The speed of wind is not constant as well as the generated voltage is not also constant.Finally a wind farm integrated power system is designed and in simulation it is tried to keep the voltage constant by controlling the pitch angle of the wind turbine.
The wind power penetration is increasing tremendously.To integrate this huge amount of energy contribution from wind firms into our current electrical system is a big challenge for both power system planners and operators because of different behavior of wind power plants than the conventional power plants. It is required from the wind power plants that it should contribute in grid support such as frequency, voltage and reactive power control and it should behave as a conventional power plant during normal and abnormal conditions. For this reason transmission system operator’s (TSO) of different countries have issued grid codes for wind power plants to operate them in conventional way. This project explains a way to test wind turbines grid code requirements to act like a conventional power plant.The entire project is simulated in PSCAD/EMTDC.
Due to random variations of wind speed, output power of a wind turbine generator fluctuates continuously. The power and voltage quality of a wind power system consisting of Induction Generator (IG) based wind turbine (IGWT), IGWT with voltage control device and Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) based wind turbine (DFIGWT) are presented in this work. Blade pitch angle control to limit the output power at turbine’s nominal power is also presented. It is reported that the DFIG-based wind turbine system can smooth the output power and also maintain the terminal voltage at a desired level, as DFIG with two back-to-back voltage source converters that use IGBTs and a capacitor acts as the DC voltage source has real and reactive power control abilities. The comparative results show that DFIGWT-based wind farm (DFIG_WF) has the best response, IGWT-based wind farm (IGWF) with voltage control device has better and IGWF has the worst response. Results indicate that the fluctuation of output power at higher rated rotor speed (near turbine’s base wind speed) and terminal voltage are almost nil for DFIG_WF. All the analysis were carried out using SimPowerSystem tool box in MATLAB.
This book is very useful for the researchers who are working on wind, PV or Wind-PV hybrid power plants. Renewable energy from wind turbine and solar photovoltaic are the most environment-friendly type of energy to use. Because of combined benefits of renewable energy and hybrid system, a considerable interest has emerged in ‘renewable hybrid’ energy systems. This book, therefore, provides the case study of Wind, PV and Wind-PV hybrid system in different environmental conditions. The modeling of the system components and power control scheme is done using MATLAB/SIMULINK.
This book presents a set of proposals for advanced control functionalities in order to achieve a coordinated and optimized voltage management of distribution networks comprising several Distributed Generation units, controllable loads, storage devices and microgrids. Large scale integration of Distributed Energy Resources, namely Distributed Generation at the Medium Voltage level and microgeneration at the Low Voltage level, poses several technical challenges for distribution network operation, especially concerning voltage control. Accordingly, the development of specific control solutions is required in order to maximize the integration of these units in the distribution system. The work presented here focused on the development of a conceptual framework model for regional ancillary services markets for voltage control. In addition, a methodology for voltage and reactive power control to be integrated in a tool for managing network operation in the short-term time-horizon is proposed.
In the field of electrical power generation, the wind energy is one of the important sources of renewable energy. The main problem with this type of energy is the variable nature of the wind speed. The wound rotor induction generator is used to handle this speed variations by adequate voltage injections in the rotor circuit to maintain the stator voltage and frequency constant irrespective to speed or load variations. This book deals with the analysis, steady state modeling, and control of the wound rotor induction generator that can be used in wind energy applications. Moreover the linear control strategy used is analyzed in terms of all its operating conditions and output quality. The theory was validated via experimental setup to compare theoretical, simulation and practical results to evaluate the usefulness and effectiveness of the system.
Since renewable energies are important sources of electricity generation and rain energy increases power of wind station, this book implies rain effect on wind turbine in areas which both rain and wind exist. Furthermore turbulence is studied to obtain voltage and frequency stability in the presented wind-rain station. Besides new simulation of induction machine is applied to wind-rain station in high voltage sag and all of used wind speeds.
The primary task of a wind turbine is to generate electricity from the wind and to supply the produced power to the user. Control of a wind turbine is an integral part of the wind power generation system for proficient operation of the wind turbine, to ensure the maximum power production and finally, maximum energy capture from a wind turbine system. In order to avoid problems at installation, it is required to test the power electronics and study the performance of the controller in a laboratory environment. The aim of this book is therefore to propose and validate maximum power point control strategies for wind turbine and most importantly, to develop a prototype of a small wind energy conversion system that emulates the steady state and dynamic behavior in a laboratory environment.
Hybrid systems are multi source systems that produce electricity independently of the main network(Island-mode). Hybrid systems have been receiving great interest due to tremendous application potential in remote areas, whereby power provision is challenging in terms of transmission and abundance. Hybrid systems make use of photovoltaic panels, fuel cells, and wind turbine to generate electricity from renewable energy resources. This book focuses on controlling active and reactive power in a hybrid systems. In the proposed hybrid, electricity is produced by two renewable energy devices, namely, PV panel and wind turbine. Storage battery plays an integral role in system back up and storing excess energy harvested from natural resources and using of diesel as supported. Matlab software are chosen for hybrid power system simulation.
The present book includes very systematic subject matter in easy language. Each chapter of this is self explanatory and easily understandable for new comers in the area of wind energy. This book gives the art of re-powering of wind energy. Analyzes the environmental impact of wind energy. Describe methodology to analyze wind power density. This book is a case study of wind mill plant based on real data
Reactive Power Planning is one of the most intricate power systems optimization problems. It is defined as the optimal location of reactive power compensation devices as well as determining their types and sizes while minimizing the investment and power losses costs and maintaining an adequate voltage profile. This book presents an application of the Differential Evolutionary Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm for solving the Reactive Power Planning problem with wind power penetration. Fixed and switched capacitor banks, TCR, SVC and STATCOM are installed and sized to minimize the investment and power losses costs and the voltage deviations from the nominal value. Initially, four different deterministic scenarios are tested and the results demonstrate that planning the purchase and installation of new devices in the network based solely on this kind of scenarios is not reliable. Then, two different values of voltage deviation validate the probabilistic model and offer insight on its behaviour. Finally, it is presented a trade-off analysis between the maximum allowed voltage deviation and the power losses.
The development of advanced energy management systems for efficient and environment friendly society require proper design. Modeling and simulations are performed on the design models for their validity in real time applications. The book presents the modeling of the hybrid wind and fuel cell energy systems using MATLAB SIMULINK toolbox. The wind turbine coupled to doubly fed induction generators combined with the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell to meet the load demand. The fluctuations in the output of the Wind Turbine due to wind speed variations are taken care of by the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell. CUK converter is used to increase the voltage from the non-conventional energy sources. The inverter converts DC voltage to the variable AC voltage given to the load. The main advantage of the hybrid system is to provide Continuous power supply to the load.
In the time of current trend of increasing energy consumption, the wind-power engineering may compensate considerable part of required electric energy. Rapid wind-power engineering development is considered to be one of the important sources of human need satisfaction. Conventional wind turbine control strategies are dedicated to ensure high energy conversion efficiency under varying wind conditions. The challenge in wind power control engineering is to design an adaptive wind turbine control strategy, which provides the dynamic system stability and the effectiveness of energy conversion. The aim of this book is to design and implement the control algorithm, which implies the electromagnetic torque control in order to adapt the rotor speed and keep high energy conversion efficiency. Wind turbine operation is considered in the partial-load regime. The stability of the purposed control system is studied using linear control theory concepts. The effectiveness of the wind energy conversion is proved by the simulation results in MATLAB Simulink environment.