Renewable energy is natural energy which does not have a limited supply and can be used again and again. In recent years, these energies (mostly wind energy) have been one of the fastest growing additions to power networks in many countries. It is due to advance in technology and it''s green nature. But this increase in wind energy might lead to challenging situations concerning reactive power and voltage control issues in both transmission and distribution network. This book, therefore, explains the procedure in extracting the kinetic energy from wind energy via wind turbines and the ability to control these voltage and reactive power issues. With the ability to control voltage and reactive power in wind energy, wind farms will be an ideal source of green energy for 21st century. This book could be useful to professionals who are dealing with wind turbines and green energy technology and to those who are working for the future challenges in power networks.
During the last two decades it is observed that the increase in electricity demand and environmental concerns resulted in a rapid growth of power production from renewable energy sources. Among all renewable sources, wind energy is one of the most costs effective forms to generate electrical power. In Canada, government initiatives to advance the expansion of wind energy were implemented moderately later than many other countries around the world. However, since 2001, Canadian wind energy has grown to become one of the world’s largest and fastest growing markets, driven largely by national production incentives and provincial renewable energy targets. In this book, two case studies are presented based on the eastern part of Canada. The book gives a detail analysis of wind energy based isolated power systems, as well as wind farms for remote grid systems. Review of the existing literature is discussed in the second chapter of this book. In the third chapter, the mathematical models of different components in wind-diesel hybrid power systems are developed.
In this book shows a novel control approach of a three phase grid connected wind energy conversion system, incorporating a maximum power point tracker for dynamic active power generation jointly with reactive power compensation of distribution utility systems has been presented. Thus the five level multilevel inverter topology were chosen based on what has gone before, even if that topology may not be the best choice for the application. Several multilevel voltage source inverters and their modulation topologies are introduced. The cascaded-inverter with separated dc sources is discussed in detail with results to verify the proposed concepts. The improved capabilities of the grid-connected WECS to rapidly exchange active power with the electric system, simultaneously and independently of the reactive power exchange, permit to greatly enhance the operation and control of the electric system.
This book represents different types of renewable energy, the behavior of renewable energy.The world is hunger of energy. The conventional energy is decreasing day by day. The use and necessity of renewable energy is discussed with respect to all over the world. A wind farm consists of several wind turbines.It is essential to connect the wind farm. Wind energy and wind firm are also discussed then it covers essential topics about wind turbine systems such as wind turbine generation system, wind power output, mechanical power extracted from wind.The speed of wind is not constant as well as the generated voltage is not also constant.Finally a wind farm integrated power system is designed and in simulation it is tried to keep the voltage constant by controlling the pitch angle of the wind turbine.
Hybrid systems are multi source systems that produce electricity independently of the main network(Island-mode). Hybrid systems have been receiving great interest due to tremendous application potential in remote areas, whereby power provision is challenging in terms of transmission and abundance. Hybrid systems make use of photovoltaic panels, fuel cells, and wind turbine to generate electricity from renewable energy resources. This book focuses on controlling active and reactive power in a hybrid systems. In the proposed hybrid, electricity is produced by two renewable energy devices, namely, PV panel and wind turbine. Storage battery plays an integral role in system back up and storing excess energy harvested from natural resources and using of diesel as supported. Matlab software are chosen for hybrid power system simulation.
The grid codes require taking into account the reactive power of the wind farm/park in order to contribute to the network stability, thus operating the wind farm as active compensator device. This book gives a comparative study of stabilizing wind farms using flexible ac transmission systems (FACTS) units like the (Static Synchronous Compensator) STATCOM and the variable speed wind turbines like the Doubly Fed Induction Generators (DFIGs) during wind speed change and grid fault. Both systems can provide reactive power to the wind farms during dynamic and transient conditions. Simulation analyses were carried out in laboratory standard simulation software called power system computer aided design/electromagnetic transient including DC (PSCAD/EMTDC). The simulated results show that the wind farms could be effectively stabilized with both systems. However, the cost is reduced with the DFIGs system because, apart from generating electric power during steady state,it can also provide reactive power through its frequency converters to stabilize the wind farms without the need of an external reactive power compensation units like the STACOM.
In this book, Enhancement of power quality by means of LVRT capability of wind farm driven by PMSG is presented. Nowadays the share of power using wind generation is increasing continuously in all over the world; hence penetration of wind power in to grid is also increasing. The grid connection condition of the wind turbine is more important and Cascading effect should be avoided; wind turbine should stay connected to grid during grid disturbances. Connecting wind farm to grid is difficult and challenging task for the system operators as there are many connection requirements as a part of Grid Codes. One of the dynamic requirements mentioned in grid code is Low voltage ride through capability. It also presents control of reactive power to satisfy grid code requirement using STATCOM. Simulation results show the real power, reactive power with STATCOM and without STATCOM.
Reactive Power Planning is one of the most intricate power systems optimization problems. It is defined as the optimal location of reactive power compensation devices as well as determining their types and sizes while minimizing the investment and power losses costs and maintaining an adequate voltage profile. This book presents an application of the Differential Evolutionary Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm for solving the Reactive Power Planning problem with wind power penetration. Fixed and switched capacitor banks, TCR, SVC and STATCOM are installed and sized to minimize the investment and power losses costs and the voltage deviations from the nominal value. Initially, four different deterministic scenarios are tested and the results demonstrate that planning the purchase and installation of new devices in the network based solely on this kind of scenarios is not reliable. Then, two different values of voltage deviation validate the probabilistic model and offer insight on its behaviour. Finally, it is presented a trade-off analysis between the maximum allowed voltage deviation and the power losses.
Due to random variations of wind speed, output power of a wind turbine generator fluctuates continuously. The power and voltage quality of a wind power system consisting of Induction Generator (IG) based wind turbine (IGWT), IGWT with voltage control device and Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) based wind turbine (DFIGWT) are presented in this work. Blade pitch angle control to limit the output power at turbine’s nominal power is also presented. It is reported that the DFIG-based wind turbine system can smooth the output power and also maintain the terminal voltage at a desired level, as DFIG with two back-to-back voltage source converters that use IGBTs and a capacitor acts as the DC voltage source has real and reactive power control abilities. The comparative results show that DFIGWT-based wind farm (DFIG_WF) has the best response, IGWT-based wind farm (IGWF) with voltage control device has better and IGWF has the worst response. Results indicate that the fluctuation of output power at higher rated rotor speed (near turbine’s base wind speed) and terminal voltage are almost nil for DFIG_WF. All the analysis were carried out using SimPowerSystem tool box in MATLAB.
The content of the Work is aimed at the topical issue - integration of increasing infeed of wind power into a power system, in particular its impact on the transmission networks and electricity market. In power system development horizons where forward-looking planning tasks are formed, proper instruments that are able to assess those impacts in progressive stages, comprehensive understanding of the impacts on the entire system operation, electricity markets as well as generating and transmission infrastructural requirements are indispensable for proper decisions of policy makers and planners. The main part therefore focuses on methods and elaboration of approaches for bulk wind power production modelling and simulation primarily intended for infrastructural planning purposes, while technical/economic as well as regulatory aspects of the environment are taken into consideration. The research is carried out within the framework of the European Energy Research Alliance (EERA), Joint Research Programme on Smart Grids, Transmission Planning with the main target focusing on R&D of the next generation of smart grid technologies and system development.
The wind power penetration is increasing tremendously.To integrate this huge amount of energy contribution from wind firms into our current electrical system is a big challenge for both power system planners and operators because of different behavior of wind power plants than the conventional power plants. It is required from the wind power plants that it should contribute in grid support such as frequency, voltage and reactive power control and it should behave as a conventional power plant during normal and abnormal conditions. For this reason transmission system operator’s (TSO) of different countries have issued grid codes for wind power plants to operate them in conventional way. This project explains a way to test wind turbines grid code requirements to act like a conventional power plant.The entire project is simulated in PSCAD/EMTDC.
Electrical power is the most widely used source of energy for our homes, work places and industries. Population and industrial growth have led to significant increases in power consumption over the past three decades. Natural resources like coal, petroleum and gas that have driven our power plants,industries and vehicles for many decades are becoming depleted at a very fast rate. This serious issue has motivated nations across the world to think about alternative forms of energy which utilize inexhaustible natural resources. Renewable energy like solar, wind, and tidal currents of oceans is sustainable, inexhaustible and environmentally friendly clean energy. Due to all these factors, wind power generation has attracted great interest in recent years. Undoubtedly, wind power is today’s most rapidly growing renewable energy source. Many of the new, large turbines being produced are variable speed turbines,which use doubly fed induction generators (DFIG). These are induction generators which have their stator and rotor independently excited. Turbines of this type are becoming increasingly popular, because the converters required to control them are cheap and subject to less losses.
Since renewable energies are important sources of electricity generation and rain energy increases power of wind station, this book implies rain effect on wind turbine in areas which both rain and wind exist. Furthermore turbulence is studied to obtain voltage and frequency stability in the presented wind-rain station. Besides new simulation of induction machine is applied to wind-rain station in high voltage sag and all of used wind speeds.
This book contents an elaborate analysis on the SPWM (Sine Pulse Width Modulation) Boost Inverter especially for the grid connected PV power system. Reactive power control strategy of Boost Inverter at the inverter side has also been studied. By changing the modulation index of the Boost Inverter the output parameters have been varied. A range of modulation index has also been prescribed within which the percentage of THD (Total Harmonic Distortion)is in a tolerable range according to the IEEE standard 519. Moreover, a rigorous analysis on a set of different parameters along with the simulation results has been made and compared to investigate the proper characteristics of this device.
In the time of current trend of increasing energy consumption, the wind-power engineering may compensate considerable part of required electric energy. Rapid wind-power engineering development is considered to be one of the important sources of human need satisfaction. Conventional wind turbine control strategies are dedicated to ensure high energy conversion efficiency under varying wind conditions. The challenge in wind power control engineering is to design an adaptive wind turbine control strategy, which provides the dynamic system stability and the effectiveness of energy conversion. The aim of this book is to design and implement the control algorithm, which implies the electromagnetic torque control in order to adapt the rotor speed and keep high energy conversion efficiency. Wind turbine operation is considered in the partial-load regime. The stability of the purposed control system is studied using linear control theory concepts. The effectiveness of the wind energy conversion is proved by the simulation results in MATLAB Simulink environment.