Residential rooftop photovoltaics (PV) systems have great potential to supply part of the growing energy demand. However, its non-dispatchable, fluctuating, and intermittent characteristics may negatively impact the power quality and reliability (PQR) of low voltage (LV) distribution feeders. Large amounts of non-dispatchable PV sources, if integrated in a distributed way, can reverse the power flow in the feeder and lead to overvoltages. In diesel-based autonomous systems with high-penetration of PVs, the reduction in net load can significantly increase the wear and tear on the diesel genset(s). Therefore, connection of only a modest amount of PV is currently allowed at the LV level without a prior impact-assessment study. This book focuses on the detrimental impact of high penetration of PVs on LV systems and on the remedial actions that can be taken to increase PQR and the displacement of fossil fuels in diesel-based autonomous systems.
Today the world is looking towards the efficient energy generation from renewable energy sources because of extinction of fossil fuels.Wind energy is a promising source of green energy.But the problem associated with this kind of energy id due to varying wind speeds the out put is also varying so it is not possible to integrate it to grid.Here Induction generators are dominantly used because of their advantages in variable speed torque characteristics.In this book an attempt is made to discuss different types of generators used in wind energy and different topologies for control of voltage and frequency of Self Excited induction generator are discussed and new promising methods are proposed for low cost power generation.
The global commitment towards a sustainable future energy supply portfolio yields several new technical, economical and political challenges. Thus, understanding the drivers of energy technology investment costs is of key importance. Consequently, the core objective of this book is to identify the simultaneous impact of, on the one hand, energy and raw material prices and technological learning effects, on the other hand, on the investment costs of electricity technologies. Results depict a significant impact of steel prices on wind onshore investment costs, whereas offshore wind investment costs are additionally affected by concrete prices. Steel and concrete prices show an even stronger impact on biomass CHP investment costs. In contrast, the silicon price holds a marginal impact on Photovoltaic investment costs. Similar results are derived for small-scale hydro power investment costs, where energy and raw material prices do not explain their development. In general, technological learning by doing effects are largely compensated by the impact of raw material prices in the case of wind and biomass CHP technologies whereas the opposite effect is identified for Photovoltaics.
The present book includes very systematic subject matter in easy language. Each chapter of this is self explanatory and easily understandable for new comers in the area of wind energy. This book gives the art of re-powering of wind energy. Analyzes the environmental impact of wind energy. Describe methodology to analyze wind power density. This book is a case study of wind mill plant based on real data
The research reported in this book is part of a project to develop a remote wireless sensing network for monitoring the health of highway bridges. Remote health monitoring that does not require direct human observation has many advantages in terms of cost and increased productivity. However, bridges that cannot be easily connected to the power grid require alternative means of acquiring power. This book describes the design of a wind energy harvester to power a particular component in the sensor network, the wireless router. The work discussed in this book provides a review of relevant literature and development of a detailed analytical modeling of wind turbine behavior. The analytical model provides key information on sizing generators and choosing appropriate wind turbine dimensions to provide the required amount of power. The analytical model also distinguishes the performance of vertical and horizontal axis wind turbines. The model is verified through design and testing of a first generation prototype and benchmarking of a commercially available turbine. Based on these results, the design of the next generation wind harvesting system is described.
The increasing global energy needs and the high integration of renewable energy generation require long-distance power transmission and multi-terminal complex grids. High-voltage direct current (HVDC) is an appealing alternative for future grids. Recent HVDC research has focused on voltage-source converter (VSC) technology. However, VSC is unable to handle DC contingencies. Thus far, AC breakers have been the only way to clear DC faults, though with significant economic and societal consequences. Other protection concepts include multi-level converters and faulty line identification methods. Still, DC breakers are necessary to isolate the faulty line from the network. The goal of this work is to investigate multi-terminal grid topologies under fault cases and analyze the impact of current limiting measures and control strategies on the developing DC fault currents. DC breaker technologies are studied and compared based on the total fault interruption time and the system post-fault operation restoration. With the analyzed concepts, HVDC system designers will be able to understand and tackle DC faults to facilitate an uninterruptible power flow amongst several different AC grids.
The objective of the harnessing of such non-conventional energy sources could be achieved in a big way by the development of the suitable low cost generating systems. The self excited induction generator (SEIG) is a suitable power generation source utilizing renewable energy sources due to its advantages as compared to conventional synchronous generator. SEIG can generate single phase and three phase power using three phase induction motor. The SEIG has a major drawback of poor voltage regulation. For this purpose, a suitable control scheme is to be developed such that the load on the SEIG remains constant despite the change in the consumer load. One way to regulate the voltage and frequency of the SEIG is to maintain a constant load at its terminals. Also, such control scheme should be simple, economical, rugged and reliable. The use of DSP gives cost effective solution with least hardware complexity. The performance of SEIG can be further improved with STACOM based controller for reactive power compensation or voltage source converter with bidirectional active and reactive power flow capability.
Keeping an acceptable voltage profile at the system buses is a challenging and a system-wide task. Voltage-control is rooted in rescheduling of the reactive power flow in the lines of power system. Despite the fact that many voltage-control techniques are available to electric power system operators, these systems around the world have been subjected to voltage instability problems and voltage collapses that cause in many occasions complete system breakdowns. In this Book, a new voltage–control methodology is presented, which is originated on the use of multi- objective function based on fuzzy set theory and adaptive particle swarm optimization. This methodology is applied to get a solution to the mathematical model that represents the voltage- control problem of a power system. The purpose is to ensure acceptable voltage profile and to minimize both the voltage deviation and the real power loss. The IEEE 30-Bus system model is used to employ the suggested technique to the mathematical model built for the new voltage-control methodology using Matlab code. The findings will be documented and compared with other voltage-control strategies.
This book discusses three novel applications based on a Sub-Synchronous Series Controller that has a strong positive impact on power system. First novelty of the research presented is the introduction of a SSSC for the design & implementation of shared/robust control on the Gulf Co-operative Council grid.Second novelty is describing the operation of the SSSC device using three control limits based on the PI controller’s three sets of new tuning parameters attained by incorporating a COOPER control optimization. These parameters will adjust the SSSC device compensation factor in both capacitive & inductive modes, the compensation factor limit being minimum at +/- 2%, medium at +/- 4%, & maximum at +/- 6%, depending on power/voltage deviations.Third novelty is described the SSSC device selection at the optimized location by using the Wideband Delphi iterative-based value estimation method. WBD weaknesses & strengths are also discussed by comparing proven practical results attained using the Genetic Algorithm. It is shown that a SSSC device has a strong impact on enhancing the P/Voltage between Oman and UAE & also its positive impact on neighboring countries.
The development of advanced energy management systems for efficient and environment friendly society require proper design. Modeling and simulations are performed on the design models for their validity in real time applications. The book presents the modeling of the hybrid wind and fuel cell energy systems using MATLAB SIMULINK toolbox. The wind turbine coupled to doubly fed induction generators combined with the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell to meet the load demand. The fluctuations in the output of the Wind Turbine due to wind speed variations are taken care of by the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell. CUK converter is used to increase the voltage from the non-conventional energy sources. The inverter converts DC voltage to the variable AC voltage given to the load. The main advantage of the hybrid system is to provide Continuous power supply to the load.
Penetration, Scabbing and Perforation are the basic elements of designing protective concrete structures against the impact of hard projectile. Vital structures such as nuclear plants, power plants, military structures, weapon industries, weapons storage places, bunkers, water retaining structures (dams, barrages, etc.), chemical and local industries, highway and railway bridges, tunnels, flyways, barriers etc have to be designed as self-protective structures against impact loading generated by natural disaster (tsunami, hurricane, tornado, wind storm, sand storm and earthquakes etc), consciously engendered unpleasant incidents (terrorist attacks etc), against accidentally occur incidents in nuclear plants, weapon industries, weapon storage places, local industries, and collision of air crafts, buses, trains with buildings, etc. Impact energy is the dominant cause of damage in dynamics. When hard projectile collides with concrete slab, it is the impact energy of the projectile that makes concrete slab to deform. Therefore, this book is curiously focused on the required critical impact energy of Hard Projectile causing Penetration, Scabbing, and Perforation of Concrete Slab.
* useful for future Deregulated market * will be useful for increasing system security and reliability * will be useful for decreasing the transmission losses * we can evaluate the effect of distributed Generation such as solar wind etc *Detailed mathematical analysts has been done and worked on real IEEE System * It will be useful for weak bus identification and by that we can provide FACT devices on such buses
This book is an outcome of the research carried on Production and Marketing of Wind Power in Tamil Nadu. Wind power installation is the latest mantra in global endeavor to improve the power generation scenario. In India, wind energy has been one of the prominent renewable sources of energy addressing three pressing issues viz. bridging the supply shortages, reducing carbon emissions and enhancing energy security. In India, Tamil Nadu is in the forefront in the field of wind power generation. An analysis on the factors that are responsible for the production of wind power, the cost effectiveness of wind power, the rate of return on investment, marketing practices and problems in production and marketing of wind power is made. Such a study can expose problems and may be useful to the various organizations and Government to provide conducive environment to accelerate the sustained growth of wind power development in the country through suitable policies and guidelines for providing technical help, financial support and various other incentives.
This book is very useful for the researchers who are working on wind, PV or Wind-PV hybrid power plants. Renewable energy from wind turbine and solar photovoltaic are the most environment-friendly type of energy to use. Because of combined benefits of renewable energy and hybrid system, a considerable interest has emerged in ‘renewable hybrid’ energy systems. This book, therefore, provides the case study of Wind, PV and Wind-PV hybrid system in different environmental conditions. The modeling of the system components and power control scheme is done using MATLAB/SIMULINK.
Modern power systems are expected to accommodate more and more renewable energy into the grid to minimize greenhouse gas emission from energy sector. Large scale adoption of solar and wind energy creates instability due to the intermittent nature of these sources. Major problem associated with these sources are harmonics, fluctuation or even unavailability of useful energy during peak demand. Moreover integration of these sources in different phases can cause phase unbalance and power quality (PQ) issues in the network. Energy Storage (ES) can overcome some of these PQ problems by buffering a sizeable portion of energy during low demand time and export it back to the network as required. However the integration of ES is not straight forward as it depends on network capacity and capability. Large scale integration of ES could increase the risk of additional harmonics and could develop islanding situation. ES can help to improve voltage fluctuation and distribution transformer loading condition. This book exposes the response of large integration of ES with solar and wind energy into the utility grid. This book is based on the work, ‘ES & its strategic impacts on power network'