The project covers the designing and developing of a complete solar energy based system. It consists of designing of a solar panel & the mechanism that supports the panel and the motion of the DC motor. It also includes solar tracking system which consists of two light dependent resistors (LDR's). As different light intensity falls on both LDR’s, a voltage comparator is required which compares the high and low voltages. The LDR's are connected to two transistors which are further connected to a 89c51 microcontroller. When the microcontroller gets any logic low at a port, it will give a high output accordingly on the corresponding port. In the charge controller, the system operating input voltage control consists of a relay whose function is to switch between the battery voltage & the main power after converting it into DC. To shift the load from the main power to the inverter, a load shift circuit is used. Two charging circuits are also involved in the system. In the overcharging & full charging circuit, the maximum point of voltage was set to 14 volts due to which the system can be managed between 12-14 volts whereas the discharging circuit prevents the discharging of the battery.
The concentration of the particulate and SO2 dispersed out from the stack around a typical coal based thermal power plant at Delhi, India have been estimated. Annual average meteorological parameters obtained from India Meteorological Department, New Delhi, have been used for calculating the concentration level in different seasons. Stack height variations and atmospheric stability conditions are found to have appreciable effect. Ground level particulate and SO2 concentrations have been calculated by using point source Gaussian plume model. The estimated SO2 concentrations near power plant in down wind directions are found in critical range while those of particulate are within safety limits.
The growth of civilization over the world is the history of the growth of energy. An energy-deficient society is weak and cannot make economic advancement and it is primarily the electrical energy that keeps the wheels of progress moving at a very acceleratating pace. The main source of electrical energy has been fossil fuels, hydel and nuclear, even though solar energy geothermal energy,wind power,tidal power and fusion power offer hopeful and technological alternatives.However,for most of the nations,the main burden of rapid growth rate of electrical power production for the next few decades is to be borne by power stations using fossil fuel-fired steam turbine-units.In this next context the advent of direct conversion of thermal energy to electrical energy by means of a Magnetohydrodynamic converter has gained considerable attention.MHD has many applications in science and industry.To name a few,Astrophysical Geophysical and Cosmic physics.It is still very important,in the problem of fusion power.It has applications in the creation and containment of hot plasmas by electromagnetic forces,since material walls would be destroyed.
In recent years there has been a substantial increase in the demand for controllable reactive power sources which can compensate for large lagging loads. These requirements involve precise and continuous reactive power control with fast response time and avoidance of harmonic line current generation. Solid state Var compensators using forced commutated converters have been developed and are being used for this purpose. Active power filtering (APF) can provide VAr compensation by injecting equal but opposite distortion at selected points in a network. The objective of this project is to design an Active Power Filter (APF) using Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) to achieve reactive power compensation. It is achieved by forcing the inverter line current to follow a reactive sinusoidal reference at a constant switching frequency. The current reference generator has been designed for both lagging and leading reactive power conditions. The reactive power requirements of a bridge rectifier connected load are estimated using the above current reference generator. Using this, an APF is designed to compensate the reactive power requirements of the above load.
This book presents an overeview on the various aspects of multi-terminal DC (MTDC) grids. The major portion of the book is focused on the MTDC grids constructed based on the technology of the voltage-sourced converter high-voltage DC (VSC-HVDC) transmission, but some lights are also shed on the medium- and low-voltage DC networks. The applications, potentials and advantages of the MTDC grids are investigated. In particular, applications of the MTDC grids for integration of offshore wind farms are discussed and several topologies of the MTDC grids for offshore wind farms integration are reviewed and compared to each other, in terms of cost, flexibility and feasibility. Moreover, the techniques employed for modeling of MTDC grids are also presented. There are particular focus on control methodologies for MTDC grids and DC voltage control techniques, as the most crucial control task in context of MTDC grids.
Nowadays, decision makers and stakeholders more and more require information on the effectiveness to exploit renewable energy sources. Methods and tools are more and more required to support their decisions as regards renewable power plant installations both from the choice of the proper location and from the choice of the proper technology viewpoints. This book provides an overall methodology to evaluate the sustainability of a WPP in specific sites according to a three-fold model: the wind model, the WPP model, and the cost/benefit evaluation. The book proposes an environmental decision support system for the sustainable design of wind power plants both in terms of the site selection over a regional territory and of the optimal technology to be installed. Optimal control problems for real time operational management, as well as an artificial neural network model for solar potential analysis are presented. This book enables researchers, engineers, private investors and public policy-makers to access the technical, economical and environmental potential for large-scale investments in wind and solar technologies.
Connection mode: Input: + input level IN the IN - negative input Output: the OUT + output level is the OUT - output is negative Module properties: the isolation step-down constant current constant voltage module (CC CV) charging module Scope of application: 1) The high-power LED constant current drive. 2) Lithium battery (including ferroelectric) 4V 6V 12V 14V 24V battery rechargeable Ni-MH battery nickel cadmium battery charging. 3) Solar panels wind generator voltage regulator circuit vehicle-mounted regulated power supply such as automatic lifting pressure regulating circuit. Adjust way: first right after the input power supply (4-35V) between the output voltage with a multimeter to monitor and adjust potentiometer (general chronological booster the backward turn step-down) Continuous adjustable output voltage: 30 V light regulation (1.25 -) our default delivery if you need other voltage of 4.2V voltage can be adjusted yourself Output current: maximum 3A (more than 15W please install the radiator constant current range: 0-2A (adjustable) default to 1A Turn lamp current: constant current value * (1% 100%) turn the lamp current and constant current value linkage such as constant current value of 3 A turn the lamp current is set to 0.1 times that of the constant current (0.1 * 3 A = 0.1 A) when the value of the constant current regulation into 2 A turn the lamp current is 0.1 times that of the constant current (0.1 * 2 = 0.2 A) A. When the default delivery has adjust to 0.1 times 15W output power: natural cooling Conversion efficiency: 80% (the higher the output voltage the higher the efficiency) Working temperature: Industrial grade (- 40 to + 85'C ) (ambient temperature more than 40'C please reduce power use or enhance heat dissipation) With temperature rise: 45'C Indicator light: constant current indicator light red charging indicator light in red charging indicator light blue Output short circuit protection: Yes constant current (current setting constant current value) Connection mode: can lead directly welding on the PCB Battery charging method of use: 1. Make sure you need to recharge battery float charging voltage and charging current input voltage module; 2. Adjust the constant-voltage potentiometer adjust the output voltage to 3V or so. 3. The output short circuit current is measured with a multimeter 10 a current block and regulate the flow of constant potentiometer output current reaches a predetermined charging current value; 4. The lamp current charging the default delivery is 0.1 times the charging current (constant current value) such as lamp current need to adjust please adjust potentiometer; (generally don't have to adjust) 5. Adjust the constant-voltage potentiometer to output voltage float charging voltage; 6. Battery is connected try to charge. (1 2 3 4 5 steps for input power management module the output light batteries!) LED constant current drive Method of use: 1. Make sure you need to drive the LED working current and maximum working voltage; 2. Adjust the constant-voltage potentiometer adjust the output voltage to 3V or so. 3. The output short circuit current is measured with a multimeter 10 a current block and regulate the flow of constant potentiometer output current to the expected LED working current; 4. Adjust the constant-voltage potentiometer to make the output voltage LED highest working voltage; 5. Plug in the LED commissioning.
This book focuses on performance analysis of two routing protocols belonging to the basic categories (reactive, proactive) in mobile ad hoc networks. The book analyses the network performance over real-time variable bit rate traffic based on OLSR and AODV protocols belonging to basic categories reactive and proactive. Moreover, the book is about the impact of various mobility models on routing protocols described previously. Thereafter, it contributes in making choices of models and parameters to support real-time communications. Finally, we suggest a novel approach through Fuzzy logic to analyse and caculate the optimal delay and optimal throughput.
In this paper, the impact of power interruption on capacity utilization is considered and investigated at Kality Food Share Company. Interview was conducted to different line managers of the company and officials of Ethiopian electric Power Corporation. The result reveals that power interruption was the prominent problem of the company for the last three years. During these three years EEPCo was using power rationing scheme extensively. The company''s production cost and profit level were highly influenced by power interruption. To alleviate the problem and to reduce the possible costs of power interruption the management of KFSC has taken different measures.
Ten years after the publication of this dissertation the market of renewable energy and especially the wind power segment have changed dramatically and many features, facts and key numbers are outdated since this research, but the key issue of this work remains the same, that is the analysis of every aspect of a wind power plant and the in depth focus of the importance of each one of them in order to accomplish a successful and profitable investment, while providing an alternative to classic ways of producing energy and saving the environment, an issue which especially today is far more urgent than in the beginning of the 21st century, all changes in technology equipment and market dynamics taken under consideration.
Electricity is basic need for the population and the economy. In Ethiopia, most rural and urban communities do not have access to electricity. The country power utility uses extension of power grids and installation of diesel generators as the only options. The implementation of small scale wind turbine for electric power generation is feasible alternative to be implemented in the short run. Small wind systems are considered to be those turbines with a generating capacity of less than 100 kW. In this book, small scale wind turbines are selected due to its economical and financial feasibility. The available wind energy in Ethiopia is highly variable, both spatially and temporally. The identification of optimized and feasible small scale wind electric energy supply system; factors affecting energy generation, installation and operation of small wind turbines will indicate possible areas where action can exert significant influence on rural areas economic development. By providing such insight, the findings of this book will form a useful input into the literature and policy implications particularly in off-grid wind power generation and even provoke further studies in the sector.
The electrical power supply is about to change; future generation will increasingly take place in and near local neighborhoods with diminishing reliance on distant power plants. The existing grid is not adapted for this purpose as it is largely a remnant from the 20th century. Can the grid be transformed into an intelligent and flexible grid that is future proof? This revised edition of Electrical Power System Essentials contains not only an accessible, broad and up-to-date overview of alternating current (AC) power systems, but also end-of-chapter exercises in every chapter, aiding readers in their understanding of the material introduced. With an original approach the book covers the generation of electric energy from thermal power plants as from renewable energy sources and treats the incorporation of power electronic devices and FACTS. Throughout there are examples and case studies that back up the theory or techniques presented. The authors set out information on mathematical modelling and equations in appendices rather than integrated in the main text. This unique approach distinguishes it from other text books on Electrical Power Systems and makes the resource highly accessible for undergraduate students and readers without a technical background directly related to power engineering. After laying out the basics for a steady-state analysis of the three-phase power system, the book examines: generation, transmission, distribution, and utilization of electric energy wind energy, solar energy and hydro power power system protection and circuit breakers power system control and operation the organization of electricity markets and the changes currently taking place system blackouts future developments in power systems, HVDC connections and smart grids The book is supplemented by a companion website from which teaching materials can be downloaded.
The impact of wind power generation to enhance the power system security level following a line contingency has been investigated in this book.The optimal power flow (OPF) model and contingency constraint optimal power flow (CCOPF) model with Fixed speed wind turbine generating unit (FSWTGU) are developed.The FSWTGU is modelled as PQ bus in investigating its impact on power system security analysis.Determinations of the most severe contingency scenarios have been performed based on the contingency selection and ranking process.An artificial bee colony (ABC) based optimization algorithm is used for solving the OPF model. The proposed algorithm was tested on IEEE-30 bus system.
Reactive power compensation has been widely used to increase the steady state transmittable power by controlling the voltage profile along the transmission lines in power systems. A number of reactive compensation devices such as shunt capacitor, static Var compensator (SVC) and static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) have long been applied by electric power utilities for this purpose. However, the benefits of reactive power compensation depend greatly on the placement and size of the compensators. In this book, heuristic optimization techniques are employed to determine the optimal location and size of Var compensators such as shunt capacitor, SVC and STATCOM in transmission networks to enhance voltage stability and improve voltage profile by minimizing power loss and total cost. A comparative study has also been done to evaluate the effectiveness of the different Var compensators.