Demand for electrical energy continues to grow steadily, and is particularly strong in those countries on the threshold of industrialization. Electricity grid upgrades can not keep pace with the growing energy demand due to economical and environmental considerations that electric utilities are facing today to extend their power systems. Due to this situation, operators are looking for ways to utilize the existing power systems more efficiently. Consequently, most of power systems, nowadays, are working with heavy loading conditions. These new highly stressed operating conditions of these power systems arises different forms of power system instability. This book looks at stressed modern power system together with integrated wind resources and the role of FACTS devices in enhancing voltage stability.
In this book an electric power system is considered, we design mathematical model for the determination of the increase in operational cost of transmission line caused by reactive power transmission, and decrease the Losses in electric power system by derived mathematical relations to determine an economically justified transmission distance for VARs transmission. Also, detailed analyses to help determine the increase in production costs due to the transmission of reactive power are given. The main purpose of the book is to introduce the detailed analyses of artificial neural networks which help to choosing suitable network based on a prior knowledge of the process and determine the suitable training algorithm to solve the reactive power and voltage control problems to increase the electric network effectiveness, it allows to reduce the electric power losses, substation loading and to improve the electric power quality. Then describes the implementation of this network for active and reactive power transfer allocation. Finally, we applied these modeling and network designer on the substations in west of Iraq country.
Buildings behave an important role in solving the global warming problem, since they are responsible for large amount of energy consumption in the world. Specifically, lacking of architectural design at the early design stage has adverse consequences on the climate and environmental efficiency of buildings, which is a burden for reducing the energy consumption of buildings. The objective of this work is to investigate how the building morphology which is one aspect of the architectural quality will impact the heating demand of buildings. In addition, the results of this research could be a “Starting Guideline” which helps architects and designers to design buildings which significant energy-saving and less environmental impact.
The dire need for capacity building of man power in both public educational and private sector institutions has become critical lately. Need Theory which represents an internal energy force that directs behaviour toward actions that permit the satisfaction and release of the need itself. There are three fundamental needs (winter, 1996): need for achievement, the need for affiliation, and need for power. Need for achievement is deriving pleasure from overcoming obstacles, need for affiliation intimacy is deriving pleasure from socializing and sharing with people and need for power is deriving pleasure from gaining strength or prestige, particularly by affecting one’s well-being. However, these needs are not stable but tend to fluctuate in intensity, ranging from a slumbering satisfaction to an absolute craving. Management of schools is thought to be driven by the need for exemplary performance in national examinations. Therefore, this calls for incorporation of efficient communication systems, participative approach in decision making, accountability and performance evaluation as some of the means and ways that can lead to improved academic performance in the national examinations.
The High Voltage Direct Current Transmission systems of electricity, which use the Voltage Source Technology (HVDC-VSC), are nowadays in continuous development. Thanks to their characteristics of flexibility of use and management, they easily find field for the integration with the traditional electric grid. Therefore all these features have brought the VSC solution to be the dominant technology than the traditional Current Source Systems (HVDC-CSC). The present book focuses on the model, the analysis and the management of a HVDC-VSC system in two grid configurations, starting from the case of point to point link, until the passive network management. The aim is to demonstrate that this technological solution is able to control independently one each other the fluxes of active and reactive power, to the nodes of connection with the AC grids. Besides, the study is based on the verification that this solution is also suitable to the management of an islanded grid, supplying its loads and predisposing the system to the grid reconnection.
'Electric power is everywhere present in unlimited quantities and can drive the world's machinery without the need of coal, oil, gas, or any other of the common fuels.' (Nikola Tesla, 1933) Electricity drives the world around us; unfortunately, most sources of electricity are fossil fuels with high CO2 emissions and low energy security factors. Renewable energy initiatives represent a solution for both of these issues and many more. This book focuses on the mechanisms driving renewable energy development and installation figures for wind and solar photovoltaic energy. It also examines a multitude of intrinsic country-level characteristics such as geographical location, wind and solar electricity generation potential, as well as support mechanisms and other factors to derive conclusions relevant to the problem statement. For the purposes of this research, twelve countries were randomly selected out of the EU-27 and data covering the years 2003-2010 was used. The methodology used was that of random effects estimation in order to capture the effects of time-invariable and slowly changing characteristics such as the propensity of a government and people to demand and consume renew
This book aims to study the impact of water level control structures on the self-assimilative capacity and ecosystem of rivers. Constructing a water level control structure in a river reach will increase the water depths, decrease the velocities and increase the groundwater table. These changes in the river hydraulics will impact the water quality of the river, its thermal regime and the fish that dwell in it. A mathematical model was developed to simulate the hydraulics, water quality, pollution transport in the river, temperature regime and fish habitat. The study and results showed that water level control structures have negative impacts on the upstream self-assimilative capacity of the rivers, but they have a positive impact on the DO concentrations in the downstream side due to the reaeration that happens across them. The structures also have a positive impact on the fish. As for the temperature regime it was slightly affected by the existence of the control structure.The book should be especially helpful to professionals or anyone else interested in the field of hydraulics, water quality and water environment.
The work contained in this publication details how the Mechanical energy from the finger motion is harvested and converted into Electrical energy and used to power a custom remote control system on an on-demand basis. The power generated from the electromagnetic generator at the heart of the energy harvester measured as much as 40.9 milliWatt. This is high enough for many off-the-shelf RF transceivers and can be adopted for various kinds of custom remote control systems. The author forsees a future where energy harvesting takes center stage in everyday life. The energy harvester in this publication can replace batteries in many low and moderate power remote control systems. Some of which include Car wireless entry, Remote Garage door opener and Battery-less switches. Imagine a future where all conduit wiring in the homes that run to and from switches were eliminated because the current system of switches have been replaced with energy harvesting modules. Imagine how many copper wires and conduit materials that would be saved. Besides all that, the environment would be greener and safer because there would be less disposal of batteries which constitute environmental pollution.
PV modules are tested by their manufacturers at STCs of 1000W/m2 solar irradiance and 25oC module temperature. However, the actual operating conditions of theses modules, usually vary from the STCs. In this work, climate data recorded for 8 cities of Nigeria have been used to stimulate the module temperatures and electrical outputs of 3 module types of 100W each. The results gotten were analyzed and the cities with high ambient temperature and low wind speed had high module temperature, lower Voc and efficiency, than the cities with lower ambient temperature and higher wind speed. High solar irradiation cities recorded high Isc and max power. The stimulated results were used to estimate the pv array size for a typical Nigerian home and values compared with RETScreen results.
Oil, gas, coal and uranium reserves of Kazakhstan are among the biggest in the world. Therefore, energy production is based on relatively cheap fossil fuels. However, it is little known about enormous renewable energy potential of Kazakhstan. In this study, potential of wind power was assessed and power outputs for nine sites were estimated. Additionally, the environmental improving effects were estimated and the cost analysis revealed that the reduction of external cost of power generation in the amount of 22 billion Kazakhstani Tenge could be achieved as the direct substitution of thermal power. Finally, multi-criteria assessment of candidate sites was performed using objective weighting method in order to identify the possibility of successful deployment of wind power in Kazakhstan.
This book presents the basis for designing a control strategy for Shunt Active Power Filters used for the compensation of harmonic currents consumed by nonlinear loads. The design of the controller is carried out using the interconnection and damping assignment technique. The control objective is to inject the adequate compensation current into the power system, so that the grid current is sinusoidal and balanced, regardless of whether the grid voltage is distorted or unbalanced. This application uses a design methodology based on interconnection and damping assignment that allows trajectory tracking control because the references of the compensating currents are variable, and they depend on the performance of the load and the grid. References of the compensation currents are calculated by using Instantaneous Active-Reactive Power Theory.
Wind is one of the environment friendly sources of energy, which is by and large sufficient on islands. Nonetheless, many islands lack in adequate wind speeds to produce electricity. The state-of-the-art wind turbine technology claims to produce electric power at very low speeds. However, these turbines are not apposite to all circumstances due to some limitations. Further, day by day, the cost of clean and inexhaustible renewable energy is declining and that of contaminating and depleting fossil fuel is mounting. Consequently, the technology drawing less attention today might be the most desirable one tomorrow. Under such situation, which type of system-configuration would be suitable and what role the wind might play there in generating sustainable electricity for the far-off islands where wind speeds are not encouraging.
Adolescence is a critical period as the physiological need for nutrients is high relative to energy needs. In addition, eating behavior and lifestyles are formed during this period, which may continue in to adulthood. Interventions to promote healthy nutrition need to occur in adolescence to reverse the adverse health effects of obesity and poor eating habits. Educating children and adolescents can instill positive health behaviors in the early years. Skills-based health education has been shown to make significant contributions to the healthy development of children and adolescents and to have a positive impact on important health risk behaviors. Therefore, this endeavor was undertaken with the objectives to assess dietary knowledge, attitude, behavior among school adolescents in Delhi, to impart the life-skills through training sessions for adopting healthy nutrition behavior among adolescents and to assess the impact of food and nutrition related life-skills training on dietary behavior of the intervention group and compare it with the control group.