Language learning strategies received great interest from researchers since the 1970s. The relationship between strategy use, strategy instruction and language proficiency has attracted much attention and debate over the years. Strategy instruction research is expected to produce different results in different parts of the world largely because of the effect of different educational systems and cultural values. This study attempted at investigating strategy instruction within the Saudi context as a contribution to the growing global picture of cross-cultural strategy use and instruction. This accumulation of findings from research around the world will be useful for language teachers, researchers and program designers. The study targeted Saudi female English majors at King Saud university to investigate the relationship between explicit first language strategy instruction and language learning examining whether there will be a difference in strategy use after strategy instruction. Moreover, the study also investigated the effect of the strategy course on subjects’ language proficiency level by the end of the semester in three different skills reading, writing, and listening.
For decades, linguists have introduced theories related to the process of acquiring second languages. As the world rapidly changes, particularly because of the integration of emerging technologies in everyday human activities, theories that were primarily based on traditional ways of teaching and learning different academic subjects which include languages, i.e. first and second languages, should be evaluated and updated if necessary in order to keep them relevant. Different geographical locations, socio-economic and political changes should also be considered when evaluating those available theories. In the context of the current world characterized by the use of modern mobile technologies, this book provides the detailed literature on technology for language learning and theories of second language acquisition, and it evaluates the validity and relevance of Krashen’s Input Hypothesis based on the case of Rwanda, a small landlocked, non-industrialized monolingual country of Africa, which shifted from its colonial legacy ‘French’ to the liberation anthem ‘English’ as the foreign language used as a medium of instruction at all levels of education since 2008.
The present study aims to investigate university students` beliefs about foreign language learning in an Austrian academic context. To map beliefs and attitudes, Horowitz`s (1987) BALLI (Beliefs About Language Learning Inventory) survey instrument is employed and administered to the participants. The investigation intends to shed light on similarities and differences in language learning beliefs among individuals of various cultural background and beliefs regarding different languages. The main goal of this thesis is to go more beyond the traditional 2nd language learning belief system investigations by focusing on the possible occurrences of differing beliefs among international individuals. Findings in previous BALLI study projects suggested that beliefs may vary based on the participants` cultural and situational background. Investigating language learning beliefs by dividing the participants according to their ethnicity, the results are expected to reveal interesting differences in beliefs held by people coming from various parts of the world. The rational for approaching further language learning research from this point of view is that Graz enjoys the role of a cross-cultural and multilingual meeting point of East and West, and North and South. Besides English, which is the major lingua franca, German is the official language of the country accompanied by several regional
In this volume, Ben Medlock investigates the application of machine learning classification techniques to four key natural language processing tasks: topic classification, spam filtering, anonymisation and hedge identification. Theoretical arguments are combined with practical experiments, and consideration is given to the impact of the presented research within the wider context of the field as a whole.Natural language processing (NLP) is a thriving discipline in both the research and commercial arenas. It is central to the next generation of computational systems and a key technology in advancing the ease with which humans and machines interact. The classification paradigm, drawn from the field of machine learning, is a generic framework within which a computational learner induces a functional mapping between a particular sample space and a set of designated target classes, or in simple terms, the automatic assignment of category labels to data. This is a wide-ranging exploration of applied classification techniques for NLP and an essential read for those with an interest in the application of computers to language processing.
The Nim-bii-go-nini Ojibwe Language Revitalization Strategy is a grassroots approach to language learning that has been in collaborative development and implementation with my family since 2008. Nim-bii-go-nini is two words: Nim-bii-go, commonly pronounced Nipigon, and Nini, meaning people. We are Lake Nipigon Ojibwe people. This strategy is one response to some of the negative intergenerational impacts that the Canadian Residential Schools have on Aboriginal families. We have incorporated the Ojibwe medicine wheel into an Eight Cycle Process with Basic and Assessment Processes that help us to organize and develop our language learning plan. This study describes how my family began to renew our familial relationships and rebuild our cultural foundation so that intergenerational knowledge sharing could fully occur; without this the initial stages of the revitalization of our language could not have taken place. This study demonstrates more than a reversal of the colonizing homogenized Euro Western education imposed on us, it is an example of a grassroots effort to rebuild the frayed social fabric of our Indigenous societies through families coming together to learn their language.
By speaking the language, therefore, one automatically makes parallel oneself with the culture of the language. Therefore, language is culture. Language is the spirit of the country and people who speak it.Considering this key point is very important for teachers, syllabus designers and the students themselves; also evaluating students and differentiating between them with regards to this issue would lead to a more reliable assessment of their language proficiency and consequently could result in a more effective language teaching and learning.This book will guide you to consider culture and motivation as the two important factors in language learning and teaching.
This monograph addresses the issue of‘washback''. What is ‘washback''? What does it look like in practice? It is asserted that tests influence students who prepare to take them, and teachers who try to help the students, thereby influence learning and teaching in schools. ‘Washback'' effect refers to these influences of the testing (Alderson and Wall, 1993). Although professionals have written about the concept, as yet little is known about how ‘washback'' actually functions, whether it really exists and (if it at all exists) what its nature looks like in the day-to-day school operation. This work examines the ‘washback'' effects of the Grade 10 EGSEC English Language Exams in selected schools in Ethiopia. An attempt is also made to determine the nature of the washback effect. The findings revealed that the exam has washback effect on the students'' and the teachers'' perception of the students'' learning. And when seen from the point of view of coverage, ... and appropriateness, the exam is found to have negative ‘washback'' effect. Based on the findings, relevant conclusions were drawn and implications for future test design were discussed.
Due to importance of productive skills and shift of focus in English education, there is a need for investigating learners’ classroom behavior to find out the ways that lead to better students and better teaching. In particular, significance of risk-taking in oral production has been documented in many studies. The present study addresses EFL students and tries to explain and analyze their attitudes toward risk-taking and silence in classroom.
There is little doubt that vocabulary is one of the core components of language without which the story of language learning is hardly worth telling. Claims that one may learn a language without learning words may be like a surgeon claiming that the operation was a success, but that the patient died. Despite the consensus on the undeniable role of vocabulary in language learning, the relevant literature does not seem to offer a rosy picture of the current ways of teaching L2 vocabulary. For this, one can point the finger of blame partially at presentation techniques. To help resolve part of the controversy, the present book compares the effects of three commonly used techniques of vocabulary teaching; namely, glossing, semantic mapping, and imagery on L2 vocabulary comprehension and production. Apart from the results of an empirical analysis, it also includes a relatively comprehensive review of the relevant literature on the topic. The reading of this book is suggested for those who are interested in carrying out research on the issues raised or addressed in this book. The book may also be of interest to second/foreign language learners, teachers and materials developers.
This volume explores the development of Language and Language pedagogy from Theory to Method and the Post Method paradigms. The book seeks to draw implications to the classroom practitioner from the developments in Second Language instruction. The book discusses two theories of language acquisition and one theory of language learning and the relevance of these theories to the modern second language practitioner. It traces the long journey second language teaching has embarked on in the search for a second language teaching method which would provide the panacea for second language instruction ills and how the search has been rendered futile. The seeming breakthroughs subsequent to the method era are also examined. The book then considers some pertinent issues and practices related to the post-method era in second language teaching. The volume concludes by discussing errors and error correction in second language teaching within the context of the theories and methods discussed. The presentation of content is punctuated by self- help exercises meant to consolidate the issues discussed and to help the reader gauge their understanding of the issues raised.
This book aim to explore what are the reasons for college students to prefer in using SNSs in learning English language. This investigation applies self-efficacy theory to explain how using SNSs will affect students’ beliefs. The study used questionnaire to conduct empirical research,collect, and analyze data of 286 participants from Umm AL-Qura University in Makkah in KSA. The findings clearly reflect that there is no significant difference between female and male groups in familiarity with SNSs. There is a significant positive correlation between reasons for using SNSs and students’ academic self-efficacy. Multiple regression analysis showed only non-academic reasons for using social networking sites technology and it has a positive effect on the students’ academic self-efficacy. The results suggest that using SNSs in daily life for non-academic reasons will promote students’ academic self-efficacy for informal learning purposes. As well as using SNSs in academic field with regulated learning environment may promote both effective methods of teaching and learning English language.
From an award-winning neuroscience researcher with twenty years of teaching experience, Multiple Pathways to the Student Brain uses educator-friendly language to explain how the brain learns. Steering clear of “neuro-myths,” Dr. Janet Zadina discusses multiple brain pathways for learning and provides practical advice for creating a brain-compatible classroom. While there are an abundance of books and workshops that aim to integrate education and brain science, educators are seldom given concrete, actionable advice that makes a difference in the classroom. Multiple Pathways to the Student Brain bridges that divide by providing examples of strategies for day-to-day instruction aligned with the latest brain science . The book explains not only the sensory/motor pathways that are familiar to most educators (visual, auditory, and kinesthetic), it also explores the lesser known pathways–reward/survival, language, social, emotional, frontal lobe, and memory/attention–and how they can be tapped to energize and enhance instruction. Educators are forever searching for new and improved ways to convey information and inspire curiosity, and research suggests that exploiting different pathways may have a major effect on learning. Multiple Pathways to the Student Brain allows readers to see brain science through the eyes of a teacher—and teaching through the eyes of a brain scientist.
Ronald Schmidt-Fajlik discusses the importance of developing interpersonal competence in English language teaching. Teaching methodology should not only concentrate on developing language skills for effective communication, but should also include developing interpersonal competence. Cross-cultural research is conducted regarding the interpersonal competence of students in Japan, China, Russia, Ghana, and Saudi Arabia. Guidelines and suggestions are given in order to develop interpersonal competence in English language teaching.
Provides a much-needed overview of current themes and research on child second language learning.
When you think of Video Gaming, what immediately springs to mind? Action? Adventure? Heartache? Rage? How about Language Learning? No? Didn’t think so. In traditional gaming, language learning is not something that would be considered a factor. However, this dissertation is going to look into that very subject, to observe traditional gaming and see its impact on language. By using both conventional and unconventional methods to look into this untapped area of video game academia, we will be able to explore this complex and fascinating area.