Cattle rearing in India enable poor and landless farmers to earn a living and an important input for agriculture. Regionally adapted animal genetic resources were fulfilling these functions, whose population is under threat and the gene pool is getting diluted due to various reasons. Umblachery is a draught cattle breed of India, which is endangered according to the FAO reports. Considering community participation and economic importance as decision making tools for the conservation of animal genetic resources, this study was aimed at ascertaining the livelihood functions offered by this cattle and to elicit the farmers'' response related to their preferred cattle traits. The study showed that farmers derived multiple livelihood functions from Umblachery and they possess appreciable traditional knowledge on animal breeding. It was intended that the result of the study might help appreciating the farmers'' interests in keeping a livestock breed and incorporating their knowledge and interests while formulating policy decisions related to conservation and management of indigenous cattle population
Mbunya Francis Nkemnyi holds a Master of Science degree in Advance Studies in Human Ecology from the Vlije University Brussel, Belgium. He was born and raised in the South West Region of Cameroon, where he studied and obtained his Bachelor of Sciences degree in Botany from the University of Buea in 2007. He immediately opted to practice conservation biology with the Environment and Rural Development Foundation (ERuDeF) Cameroon and has been actively involved in the conservation of great apes in the Lebialem-Mone Forest Landscape, Western Cameroon since 2007. His interest and capabilities are in conservation program management, biological and socioeconomic surveys and environmental impact assessment. He has a special love for primate studies. His dream is to be one of the world famous conservationists through his research work.
Benefits individuals and nation get from wildlife conservation and losses local people surrounding wildlife protected areas incurred due to crop raiding done by wild animals are real. Local people are crucial stakeholders in conservation who guarantee prevalence of recorded successes of conservation in Western Serengeti Ecosystem. Necessity to address their justifiable negative perception on wildlife conservation measures to their livelihood is inevitable. Increased population of local people & wild animals, poor land use plan, lack of awareness of local people on responsibility of conservationist and government in controlling crop raiding promote the problem. More research on movements and requirements of problem animals e.g. elephants which make them to raid crops is needed; however, raising of awareness to local people & conservationists on what legally and morally should be done to control the problem require instant application. This requires changes in the content of education offered to conservationists; formal and informal education offered to local people. Content of Education for Sustainability can play a great role in raising the required awareness to combat the problem.
Protected areas (PAs) represent a key global strategy in biodiversity conservation. In tropical developing countries, the management of PAs is a great challenge since peoples' life and livings particularly ethnic communities entirely dependent on various forest resources. This study tries to explore the indigenous knowledge of hill farming system and role and scope of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) in sustaining livelihoods of Khasia and Tripura ethnic communities living in and around Lawachara National Park, Bangladesh and analyzed local attitudes and perceptions on biodiversity conservation, farming and exploitation of NTFPs. Therefore, the book would be help to the academician, researcher, agencies and policy makers by improving knowledge on forest dependent livelihoods along with local perceptions and factors influencing change. This book might be helpful for generating new guidelines for the better management of PAs through involving each forest dependent communities by providing them legal rights to forest utilization up to a sustainable limit for the positive results of both local livelihoods and PAs.
Nech sar National park is formally gazzeted in 1974 as a National Park to protect the endemic flora and fauna with the dominant philosophy of fortress conservation, often without prior consultation and clarification of purpose to the aboriginal peoples. As a matter of fact, the geography, which currently referred as national park was the home and source of basic means of living for the surrounding agricultural and agro-pastoral communities. In the due process of striving to win life and bread, the local communities trespass the park limits and held in conflict with park authorities, and sometimes among each other to maximize their informal share of the land in the park. The obvious outcome therefore, is gradual decline of wildlife, both in number and type, setting of wildfire, changing of landscape, and land use pattern, as well as trampling of the “white grass” through overgrazing. The author recommends community based conservation strategy in place of fortress conservation schemes as an alternative to bring sustainability to the park ecosystem along with livelihood security for local people.
Nepal''s biodiversity is regarded as being of tremendous importance for supporting the livelihood of the people. There are different national policies in place for the conservation and management of biodiversity. However, there are constant threats to biodiversity due to the inadequacy of these policies and regulations, and deficient local implementation practices.An actor-oriented conceptual framework approach was used to analyse national policies and local practices. This analytical framework has been used to assess functional roles and linkages between the actors responsible for national policies and the local practices. The sustainable livelihood analysis with a particular focus on the livelihood asset building processes was used for studying forest based livelihood issues. Even though some special policy objectives were formulated to address the livelihood issues of the people dependent on forest biodiversity, there are inadequate responses to implement them.
Forest provides livelihoods for hundreds of millions of people worldwide, through production of different products. The purpose of this study was to analyze the contribution of collected forest products for local livelihoods and forest conservation in Masha and Andracha Woredas of Sheka Zone in the Southern Nations and Nationalities and Peoples Regional State. Systematic sampling and simple random sampling techniques were employed to conduct survey of households and markets, respectively. Furthermore, vegetation data were collected in a total of 160 plots (20m x 20m) in four PAs following gradient of accessibility (village to deep forest). The analyzed household survey data results showed honey from beehives,kororima (Aframomum corrorima), timiz (Piper capense), wild honey and cultivated coffee were collected mainly for commercial purposes whereas bamboo culm, fire wood, medicinal plants,wild gesho (Rhamnus prinoides), lianas and wild coffee were collected for subsistence. Income from forest products support 71 % in Beto, 22.1 % in Abelo, 74.6 % in Chegecha and 26.8 % in Modi (PA) of the average annual income of local people.
Biodiversity conservation in African parks and protected areas is seriously threatened by the explosion of commercial bushmeat hunting activities in buffer zone communities. Several fauna species are becoming endangered and the list of extinct species is ever increasing due to the challenges posed by commercial bushmeat hunting activities. The explosion of commercial bushmeat hunting and trade in the region not only exacerbates fauna species depletion and extinction, but triggers negative ecological consequences that straddle local, national, regional and global scales. With insights from Cross River National Park, Nigeria, the study uses the DFID Sustainable Livelihoods Approach to explore and understand the forces driving commercial bushmeat hunting activities. The study reveals that commercial bushmeat hunting challenges are underpinned by rural livelihoods vulnerability context; livelihood assets; policies, institutions and processes, and livelihood strategies and outcomes. It concludes with policy recommendations and future research trajectories.
This study explains change in livelihood strategies and perception of the people to land degradation and land scarcity in two villages of highland of Ethiopia. It focuses on how the livelihood strategies of the rural households have changed with the increasing of land degradation and scarcity over the past fourteen years. The finding shows that the households of two villages adjust and change their livelihood strategies overtime to cope with the problem they faced. These strategies, however, vary depending on the extent and types of the problem, accessible resource and potential opportunity they incur. Moreover, it is shaped and reshaped historically based on social and political circumstances adopted over time. Finally, the finding also indicates that the livelihood strategies of a given community determines the participation of peasants in natural resource management as some livelihood strategies result in the depletion of the labor forces required to undertake natural resource conservation practices. Hence, the author recommends that the livelihood of a given community should be considered for successful planning and implementation of natural resource conservation practices.
In the face of degradations of natural resources and lack of alternative options, there are potentials of ecotourism in and around Awash National Park(ANP) which degraded by anthropogenic activities .The major objective of this study was assessing these potentials of ecotourism or alternative options for sustainable use of natural resources, poverty alleviation and food security which will improve the livelihood of local communities and conservation of ANP. Deforestation, expansion of farming, overgrazing and over extraction of water coupled with conflicts between park and local communities are detected as the major problem contributors to the degradations of natural resources of the area. The study also revealed some income generating alternatives or ecotourism potentials which could help to reduce the present degradations of natural resources of the park. About 37.2% of sampled households expressed their interests for diversified livelihood or ecotourism activities.
Conservation farming, is one of the practices being promoted so as to increase yield while conserving the productive resource base and sustainability of past productive gains. Zimbabwe, is a patriarchal society where women and men have distinct and different roles. Perceptions on conservation farming by farmers in agriculture may therefore differ along gender lines. The aim of the research was to identify what female and male farmers think are the best strategies to enhance the role of conservation arming as a buffer against social, economic and environmental hazards, and a means of ensuring livelihood sustainability and food security and to come up with information useful to policy makers on how to improve adoption of these technologies. The study concluded that farmers were of the opinion that CA was useful and has possible positive effects in addressing livelihood challenges effected by hazards such as HIV/AIDS and environmental hazards such as declining soil fertility but it is labour intensive therefore is not suitable for people infected by HIV and AIDS. The study concluded that though CA has many potential benefits which should be explored.
Ecology and socio-economy has been crucial for biodiversity conservation all around the globe. The one-horned rhinoceros is also witnessing serious threats within its habitats. In Chitwan National Park, Nepal, rhino population shows dramatic fluctuation. Few years back it continued to decline because of widespread poaching. The book tries to argue that not only the marginalized households but also the well-to-do households are susceptible to poaching. This book highlights that people are involved in these activities due to three areas of conflict: resource availability, livelihood and biodiversity conservation. Buffer zone management committees, who receive 50% of the Park revenue, have a greater role in rhino conservation by enabling these poorer households to earn through any or all activities. This is a priority for buffer zone committees so that their livelihood is enhanced and survival of the rhino is less threatened. This book is expected to make constructive contribution towards park and its buffer zone management. It can also be a useful resource for further research and investigations.
The study concerns the interface of resource based conflicts and their impact on pastoral livelihood with reference to the Basongora pastoral community who have been at the centre of land conflicts as they claim ancestral rights to ownership of Queen Elizabeth National Park (QENP)and other neighboring pasturelands. This conflict has not only affected human race but also the environmental race. The study specifically established resources and how they have precipitated conflicts; the effects of the conflict; challenges involved in resolving this conflict and livelihood strategies and resolution mechanisms adopted. The findings revealed that,resource based conflicts have negatively impacted on pastoral livelihood and conservation as well. QINP conservation policies have not considered effective coexistence between the park and the pastoral community. The Government of Uganda could use this work to create a ground of building trust as an approach to reconcile conflicting parties. Policy makers and practitioners will be aided by this book to generate appropriate policies and guidelines towards addressing resource based conflicts in developing countries and the world at large.
Publicly owned natural resources such as natural forests are important as they have useful effects on ecological balances and are the means for the livelihood of many local people worldwide. Forests provide timber and non-timber forest products. They are accepted as a veritable means of achieving poverty reduction goals because of their role in livelihood, food security and environmental objectives. Regardless of all these uses, forests in general, bamboo forests in particular are facing both man-made and natural challenges and consequently threaten their biodiversity and livelihoods of the community that depends on them. Thus, conservation and rehabilitation measures should be taken to save them from being vanished through the participation of the community to make the process sustainable. To this end, efforts have been made to know the value that the people attach to bamboo and their WTP for conservation and rehabilitation of the resource by applying CVM to consider non-market benefits of the resource. The result of the study revealed that rural households are willing to participate in the conservation and rehabilitation of bamboo forests by contributing cash and labor.
This book examines nature conservation approaches and their efficacy in achieving conservation and community livelihood goals using the case of Arusha National Park in Tanzania. The book highlights implementation challenges that jeopardize the effectiveness of conservation approaches in attaining conservation goals. The author further observes that one of the major conservation challenges is building a harmonious relationship between conservation authorities and communities living adjacent to protected areas. In this regard, he calls for the integration and effective implementation of conservation approaches which should go hand in hand with active participation and reformulation of the existing laws and regulations to practically support the current participatory paradigm in nature conservation. This book is highly recommended to Environmental Planners, Conservation Managers, policy makers and scholars in the field of Nature Conservation.