Metabolic Syndrome refers to the clustering of risk factors including obesity, elevated blood pressure (hypertension), elevated blood sugars, dyslipidaemia (high triglycerides & low HDL concentration) and hence increased risk for developing many serious medical conditions including type 2 diabetes, myocardial infarction, and stroke & early death. Lifestyle changes, one of the main factor, due to fast increasing urbanization, especially in developing countries like India, has led to the development of serious health problems like obesity, hypertension, diabetes, etc. which in turn lead to the complications like Metabolic Syndrome . About one third of the urban population in India’s major cities have Metabolic Syndrome. The National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III simplified the definition of Metabolic Syndrome to make it user friendly for medical practitioners. Our study included faculty members of different professional streams using NCEP ATPIII criteria and was concluded that medical faculty had maximum percentage of subjects having Metabolic Syndrome. Early lifestyle modification leads to the reduction in these risk factors and hence to Metabolic Syndrome.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD) are thought to have increased association with Metabolic Syndrome which represents a cluster of factors that increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus. However, the extent of association of COPD with Metabolic Syndrome and its individual components are still an unsettled issue and it is likely to vary from population to population. Under the above context the present book was written to explore the association of Metabolic Syndrome and its components with COPD.
Recent reports point to the fact that metabolic syndrome is only modestly associated with cardiovascular disease risk. The life- course of socioeconomic position appears to be an important cofounder in that association. Since studies that relate socio-economic and metabolic syndrome appear not to be available in the developing nations, this study therefore investigated the association between socioeconomic and prevalence of Metabolic syndrome Nigeria.
The South Asian population in the United Kingdom has been reported to be at high risk of developing cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. These two chronic diseases are the end result of a condition known as the metabolic syndrome. Although metabolic syndrome and its association to dietary patterns has been reported in various studies, most research has focused on Western countries and ethnic minority populations have been overlooked to a great extent. Using detailed dietary information the objective of this work was to describe the dietary patterns of South Asians and to investigate their association with metabolic syndrome risk factors. Further, the study aimed to recognize lifestyle risk factors associated to ethnicity including religion, acculturation, education level and income. Although results were in accordance with the existing literature in terms of diet composition, the examination of additional risk factors demonstrates the importance of developing public health prevention strategies tailored to the different minority ethnic groups in the UK’s heterogeneous population.
The metabolic syndrome a concurrence of disturbed glucose and insulin metabolism, overweight and abdominal fat distribution, dyslipidemia and hypertension, is associated with subsequent development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Despite its high prevalence in Asians, no national estimate is currently available on the metabolic syndrome in patients with acute myocardial infarction in Pakistan.A matched case control study using questionnaire and analysis of components of metabolic syndrome was carried out at tertiary care hospitals of Peshawar Pakhtunkhwa.The result showed that patients were 6.19 times more likely to have three or more diagnostic criteria of metabolic syndrome than the controls i.e. 55% vs 17%. This study contributed to the fact that metabolic syndrome is more common in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Screening of adults with central obesity for other parameters of the metabolic syndrome may help to reduce the prevalence of metabolic syndrome as well of myocardial infarction at an early age, which is the complication of metabolic syndrome.
The association between hypertension, obesity and hyperlipidemia is well established. Undoubtedly one of the most important risk factors for hypertension is obesity and all overweight and obese persons are at risk for hypertension, high blood cholesterol, type 2 diabetes, and coronary heart disease.A cluster of metabolic factors that increase the risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is called "metabolic syndrome". Afflicted individuals may by defined by the presence of three of the following five characteristics: central obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein levels,hypertension, and either impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes. World is currently facing the silent epidemic of metabolic syndrome. Efficay of Safoof-e-muhazzil,a classical unani antiobesity formulation based on the observations in clinical trial raises its scope of utility beyond obesity And perhaps may pave the way for development of a single formulation which will take care of all co-morbidities of metabolic syndrome which is gaining epidemic proportions world over.
This is a cross sectional study on 400 cases of diabetes mellitus who attended the National Diabetic centre/ AL–Mustensyria university for a period of 6 months. The main factor of metabolic syndrome was dysglycaemia followed by hypertension, obesity and dyslipidaemia. Females in this study were more prone to have metabolic syndrome; Male: Female ratio = 0.5. Those in the age group 60-69 have the highest frequency of metabolic syndrome. Those with BMI 30-40 have the highest frequency of metabolic syndrome. Conclusion: This study concludes that early diagnosis and aggressive treatment is needed for metabolic syndrome to avoid cardiovascular complications. This study is important because of its predictive power for cardiovascular complication and diabetes.
" Are psoriasis and metabolic syndrome offshoots of the same root?" is a small exercise to make a scientific understanding of etiological association of the two processes. Although a good beginning, still lot of research is needed in this field. C-reactive protein, a marker of inflammation, can be used to sort out those psoriatic patients who are likely to benefit from therapy by biological agents and can also help to delineate those psoriatic patients who are at high risk of developing a metabolic syndrome.
Nurses who are mostly shift workers were found to be at risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). A cross sectional study was conducted among 404 female nurses working in a teaching hospital in Kelantan, Malaysia to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its associated factors. Data were collected using a proforma consisted of sociodemographic data, occupational history, physical activity and DASS 42 questionnaire (validated Malay version). Anthropometric, blood pressure measurement and fasting venous blood were taken from each subject for fasting lipid profile and blood sugar. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 24.3% (95% CI: 20.1, 28.4). The significant factors associated with metabolic syndrome were total duration of employment (years) and one way commuting time to work (minutes). High prevalence of metabolic syndrome indicates that nurses are occupational high risk group for CHD. Occupational factors which significantly associated with metabolic syndrome in this study are total duration of employment and one way commuting time to work, however there is no significant relationship between metabolic syndrome and shift work as well as self-perceived job stress.
The metabolic syndrome is a complex cardiometabolic cluster characterized by hyperinsulinaemia, low glucose tolerance, dyslipidaemia, hypertension and obesity. It represents a significant marker of increased risk for both cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. To fight efficiently the forecasted type 2 diabetes and its cardiovascular and metabolic complications, evidence-based strategies, focusing on target groups at risk, are needed to tailor prevention programs. In this context, the overall aim of this work was to investigate, for the first time, the epidemiological profile of the metabolic syndrome, its variations and its potential socioeconomic, behavioral and biological determinants among the adult population residing in Luxembourg. Such data should offer new possibilities for successful intervention to prevent and treat the metabolic syndrome before the coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes develop in susceptible individuals and groups.
The optimal exercise load/intensity for exercise programs for individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS) has not been investigated. One method of determining optimal exercise load is to measure the blood lactate transition threshold (BLTT), referred to as the anaerobic threshold (AT). The first part of this thesis investigated the reproducibility of BLTT testing and the consequent determination of AT via the Mader method and a modified form of the ADAPT method in patients with MetS. Physical activity has been identified as a therapeutic goal and is recommended for the management of MetS. Currently exercise guidelines for MetS are the same as those for obesity with consideration given to the presence of any CVD risk factors. Yet, MetS is a multi-faceted disease and the effect of specific exercise protocols on the different components of MetS has not been investigated. Therefore, the main aim of this PhD study was to design an exercise program to optimize exercise responses and improve metabolic characteristics in individuals with metabolic syndrome. The blood lactate transition threshold (BLTT) referred to as the anaerobic threshold (AT), was used to optimize the exercise response.
The book is intended for a wide range of readers - endocrinologists, cardiologists, neurologists, gynecologists, psychiatrists, psychologists, dieticians, general practitioners, medical students, specializing doctors and patients with obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus. The monography contains data of the author’s research on neurotrophines, mast cells, chronic inflammatory and psychoemotional distress, changes in salivary glands and thyroidea, chormonal disbalance in metabolic syndrome. By revealing little-known scientific facts about NGF and etiopathogenetic mechanisms of development of cardio-metabolic disease, this book provides an answer to the ways of successful treatment of the abovementioned socially significant diseases.
With respect to considerable lifestyle changes in humans it is expected that there will be change in diseases pattern also. This book gives a comprehensive approach to readers to understand basic concept of metabolic syndrome.This book is being primarily designed for new researchers. It also gives an ideas to researchers to carry out studies of metabolic syndrome in rural areas. This study also reveals the necessity of various health schemes to be launched in rural areas and traditional communities for health for all. The style of text is simple and lucid. References are given at the end of each chapter.It will definitely be immense help as a source of excellent information to all readers with easy understanding.
As we know it is an Era of diseases and most of them are enter from, our diet and life style pattern. Global urbanization and sedentary life habits are producing a sharp increase in obesity and its concomitant metabolic risk; the latter combined into a multiplex risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease goes by the name of metabolic syndrome and hypertension. Fructose is everywhere because it is highly soluble in water, more so than glucose. It found naturally in many fruits, is now consumed by humans in large quantities due to the popularity of convenient, prepackaged foods like pizza, burger and the consumption of soft drinks and juice beverages containing high-fructose corn syrup. The effort of this book helps to understand the effect of westernized food habits which is mainly contain the fructose and its causative effect on hypertension and metabolic syndrome with possible treatments.
The metabolic syndrome (MS), which is also called insulin resistance syndrome or syndrome X is a cluster of risk factors that contribute to excessive cardiovascular disease morbidity among overweight and obese patient. Apart from the increase risk of having coronary artery disease, those with MS but without diabetes are also at risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. Each component of MS leads to an increase risk of cardiovascular-related death and worsens the severity of coronary artery disease. This risk is exacerbated when metabolic syndrome is present. To date the prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing worldwide. Thus something must be done to overcome this health problem.