This book provides a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art in the development of new and innovative materials, and of advanced modeling and characterization methods for nanoscale CMOS devices. Leading global industry bodies including the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) have created a forecast of performance improvements that will be delivered in the foreseeable future – in the form of a roadmap that will lead to a substantial enlargement in the number of materials, technologies and device architectures used in CMOS devices. This book addresses the field of materials development, which has been the subject of a major research drive aimed at finding new ways to enhance the performance of semiconductor technologies. It covers three areas that will each have a dramatic impact on the development of future CMOS devices: global and local strained and alternative materials for high speed channels on bulk substrate and insulator; very low access resistance; and various high dielectric constant gate stacks for power scaling. The book also provides information on the most appropriate modeling and simulation methods for electrical properties of advanced MOSFETs, including ballistic transport, gate leakage, atomistic simulation, and compact models for single and multi-gate devices, nanowire and carbon-based FETs. Finally, the book presents an in-depth investigation of the main nanocharacterization techniques that can be used for an accurate determination of transport parameters, interface defects, channel strain as well as RF properties, including capacitance-conductance, improved split C-V, magnetoresistance, charge pumping, low frequency noise, and Raman spectroscopy.
Nanomachines represent one of the most fascinating topics in of nanotechnology. These tiny devices provide diverse opportunities towards a wide range of important applications, ranging from targeted delivery of drug payloads to environmental remediation. This book addresses comprehensively the latest developments and discoveries in the field of nano- and microscale machines. It covers the evolution of nanomachines in general from a historical perspective, the fundamental challenges for motion at the nanoscale, different categories of biological and synthetic nano/microscale motors based on different propulsion mechanisms, ways for controlling the movement directionality and regulated speed, followed by detailed of major areas for which nanomachines has the potential to make a transformational impact. It ends with a futuristic look at nano/microscale machines and into their impact on the society. Key Features: * The only nanomachine introductory textbook currently available. * Written with college graduate level in mind to appeal to a broad interdisciplinary audience. * Covers the fundamental challenges for nanoscale motion. * Covers the latest advances in the design and operaton of a wide range of small-scale machines. * Covers diverse biomedical, environmental and technological applications of nanomachines. * Written in review format with cited articles to cover latest research and developments.
The only one-stop reference to design, analysis, and manufacturing concepts for power devices utilizing HTS. High temperature superconductors (HTS) have been used for building many devices for electric grids worldwide and for large ship propulsion motors for the U.S. Navy. And yet, there has been no single source discussing theory and design issues relating to power applications of HTS—until now. This book provides design and analysis for various devices and includes examples of devices built over the last decade. Starting with a complete overview of HTS, the subsequent chapters are dedicated to specific devices: cooling and thermal insulation systems; rotating AC and DC machines; transformers; fault current limiters; power cables; and Maglev transport. As applicable, each chapter provides a history of the device, principles, configuration, design and design challenges, prototypes, and manufacturing issues, with each ending with a summary of the material covered. The design analysis and design examples provide critical insight for readers to successfully design their own devices. Original equipment manufacturer (OEM) designers, industry and utilities users, universities and defense services research groups, and senior/postgraduate engineering students and instructors will rely on this resource. «HTS technology reduces electric losses and increases the efficiency of power equipment. This book by Swarn Kalsi, a leading expert on the HTS subject, provides a survey of the HTS technology and the design rules, performance analyses, and manufacturing concepts for power application-related devices. It compares conventional and HTS technology approaches for device design and provides significant examples of devices utilizing the HTS technology today. The book is useful for a broad spectrum of professionals worldwide: students, teaching staff, and OEM designers as well as users in industry and electric utilities.» —Professor Dr. Rolf Hellinger, Research and Technologies Corporate Technology, Siemens AG
With emphasis on the physical and engineering principles, this book provides a comprehensive and highly accessible treatment of modern lasers and optoelectronics. Divided into four parts, it explains laser fundamentals, types of lasers, laser electronics & optoelectronics, and laser applications, covering each of the topics in their entirety, from basic fundamentals to advanced concepts. Key features include: exploration of technological and application-related aspects of lasers and optoelectronics, detailing both existing and emerging applications in industry, medical diagnostics and therapeutics, scientific studies and Defence. simple explanation of the concepts and essential information on electronics and circuitry related to laser systems illustration of numerous solved and unsolved problems, practical examples, chapter summaries, self-evaluation exercises, and a comprehensive list of references for further reading This volume is a valuable design guide for R&D engineers and scientists engaged in design and development of lasers and optoelectronics systems, and technicians in their operation and maintenance. The tutorial approach serves as a useful reference for under-graduate and graduate students of lasers and optoelectronics, also PhD students in electronics, optoelectronics and physics.
Synthetic diamond is diamond produced by using chemical or physical processes. Like naturally occurring diamond it is composed of a three-dimensional carbon crystal. Due to its extreme physical properties, synthetic diamond is used in many industrial applications, such as drill bits and scratch-proof coatings, and has the potential to be used in many new application areas A brand new title from the respected Wiley Materials for Electronic and Optoelectronic Applications series, this title is the most up-to-date resource for diamond specialists. Beginning with an introduction to the properties of diamond, defects, impurities and the growth of CVD diamond with its imminent commercial impact, the remainder of the book comprises six sections: introduction, radiation sensors, active electronic devices, biosensors, MEMs and electrochemistry. Subsequent chapters cover the diverse areas in which diamond applications are having an impact including electronics, sensors and actuators and medicine.
Advanced level consolidation of the technology, physics and design aspects of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) lubistors No comprehensive description of the physics and possible applications of the Lubistor can be found in a single source even though the Lubistor is already being used in SOI LSIs. The book provides, for the first time, a comprehensive understanding of the physics of the Lubistor. The author argues that a clear understanding of the fundamental physics of the pn junction is essential to allowing scientists and engineers to propose new devices. Since 2001 IBM has been applying the Lubistor to commercial SOI LSIs (large scale integrated devices) used in PCs and game machines. It is a key device in that it provides electrostatic protection to the LSIs. The book explains the device modeling for such applications, and covers the recent analog circuit application of the voltage reference circuit. The author also reviews the physics and the modeling of ideal and non-ideal pn junctions through reconsideration of the Shockley’s theory, offering readers an opportunity to study the physics of pn junction. Pn-junction devices are already applied to the optical communication system as the light emitter and the receiver. Alternatively, optical signal modulators are proposed for coupling the Si optical waveguide with the pn-junction injector. The book also explores the photonic crystal physics and device applications of the Lubistor. Advanced level consolidation of the technology, physics and design aspects of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) lubistors Written by the inventor of the Lubistor, this volume describes the technology for readers to understand the physics and applications of the device First book devoted to the Lubistor transistor, presently being utilized in electrostatic discharge (ESD) applications in SOI technology, a growing market for semiconductor devices and advanced technologies Approaches the topic in a systematic manner, from physical theory, through to modelling, and finally circuit applications This is an advanced level book requiring knowledge of electrical and electronics engineering at graduate level. Contents includes: Concept of Ideal pn Junction/Proposal of Lateral, Unidirectional, Bipolar-Type Insulated-Gate Transistor (Lubistor)/ Noise Characteristics and Modeling of Lubistor/Negative Conductance Properties in Extremely Thin SOI Lubistors/ Two-Dimensionally Confined Injection Phenomena at Low Temperatures in Sub-10-nm-Thick SOI Lubistors/ Experimental Study of Two-Dimensional Confinement Effects on Reverse-Biased Current Characteristics of Ultra-Thin SOI Lubistors/ Gate-Controlled Bipolar Action in Ultra-thin Dynamic Threshold SOI MOSFET/Sub-Circuit Models of SOI Lubistors for Electrostatic Discharge Protection Circuit Design and Their Applications/A New Basic Element for Neural Logic Functions and Functionality in Circuit Applications/Possible Implementation of SOI Lubistors into Conventional Logic Circuits/Potentiality of Electro-Optic Modulator Based on SOI Waveguide/Principles of Parameter Extraction/Feasibility of Lubistor-Based Avalanche Photo Transistor
In order to develop excellent photonic devices, we have to fully understand the physics behind operations of photonic devices. This book thoroughly teaches the fundamental physics currently applied to the development of photonics devices such as energy bands of semiconductors, optical transitions, optical waveguides, and semiconductor junctions. The book also reviews the characteristics of laser diodes, optical filters, and optical functional devices, which have been developed based on the above physics. These photonic devices have been demonstrated in system applications, and several experimental results are described.
The phenomenon of spin-crossover has a large impact on the physical properties of a solid material, including its colour, magnetic moment, and electrical resistance. Some materials also show a structural phase change during the transition. Several practical applications of spin-crossover materials have been demonstrated including display and memory devices, electrical and electroluminescent devices, and MRI contrast agents. Switchable liquid crystals, nanoparticles, and thin films of spin-crossover materials have also been achieved. Spin-Crossover Materials: Properties and Applications presents a comprehensivesurvey of recent developments in spin-crossover research, highlighting the multidisciplinary nature of this rapidly expanding field. Following an introductory chapter which describes the spin-crossover phenomenon and historical development of the field, the book goes on to cover a wide range of topics including Spin-crossover in mononuclear, polynuclear and polymeric complexes Structure: function relationships in molecular spin-crossover materials Charge-transfer-induced spin-transitions Reversible spin-pairing in crystalline organic radicals Spin-state switching in solution Spin-crossover compounds in multifunctional switchable materials and nanotechnology Physical and theoretical methods for studying spin-crossover materials Spin-Crossover Materials: Properties and Applications is a valuable resource for academic researchers working in the field of spin-crossover materials and topics related to crystal engineering, solid state chemistry and physics, and molecular materials. Postgraduate students will also find this book useful as a comprehensive introduction to the field.
This book serves as a comprehensive source of asymptotic results for econometric models with deterministic exogenous regressors. Such regressors include linear (more generally, piece-wise polynomial) trends, seasonally oscillating functions, and slowly varying functions including logarithmic trends, as well as some specifications of spatial matrices in the theory of spatial models. The book begins with central limit theorems (CLTs) for weighted sums of short memory linear processes. This part contains the analysis of certain operators in Lp spaces and their employment in the derivation of CLTs. The applications of CLTs are to the asymptotic distribution of various estimators for several econometric models. Among the models discussed are static linear models with slowly varying regressors, spatial models, time series autoregressions, and two nonlinear models (binary logit model and nonlinear model whose linearization contains slowly varying regressors). The estimation procedures include ordinary and nonlinear least squares, maximum likelihood, and method of moments. Additional topical coverage includes an introduction to operators, probabilities, and linear models; Lp-approximable sequences of vectors; convergence of linear and quadratic forms; regressions with slowly varying regressors; spatial models; convergence; nonlinear models; and tools for vector autoregressions.
A must-have compendium on biomedical telemetry for all biomedical professional engineers, researchers, and graduate students in the field Handbook of Biomedical Telemetry describes the main components of a typical biomedical telemetry system, as well as its technical challenges. Written by a diverse group of experts in the field, it is filled with overviews, highly-detailed scientific analyses, and example applications of biomedical telemetry. The book also addresses technologies for biomedical sensing and design of biomedical telemetry devices with special emphasis on powering/integration issues and materials for biomedical telemetry applications. Handbook of Biomedical Telemetry: Describes the main components of a typical biomedical telemetry system, along with the technical challenges Discusses issues of spectrum regulations, standards, and interoperability—while major technical challenges related to advanced materials, miniaturization, and biocompatibility issues are also included Covers body area electromagnetics, inductive coupling, antennas for biomedical telemetry, intra-body communications, non-RF communication links for biomedical telemetry (optical biotelemetry), as well as safety issues, human phantoms, and exposure assessment to high-frequency biotelemetry fields Presents biosensor network topologies and standards; context-aware sensing and multi-sensor fusion; security and privacy issues in biomedical telemetry; and the connection between biomedical telemetry and telemedicine Introduces clinical applications of Body Sensor Networks (BSNs) in addition to selected examples of wearable, implantable, ingestible devices, stimulator and integrated mobile healthcare system paradigms for monitoring and therapeutic intervention Covering biomedical telemetry devices, biosensor network topologies and standards, clinical applications, wearable and implantable devices, and the effects on the mobile healthcare system, this compendium is a must-have for professional engineers, researchers, and graduate students.