Childhood obesity continues to be a major health problem in the United States. The statistics are frightening nearly two out of three children who are obese as they enter kindergarten will remain obese as teenagers, and most of those will end up obese adults. Dr. Alvin Eden, a practicing pediatrician for many years, has put his knowledge and experience in dealing with this epidemic in Obesity Prevention in Children, an authoritative resource for anyone raising kids. Recipes and meal plans have been designed by leading nutritionist Sari Greaves.
Trends during the past 20 years have revealed a dramatic increase in childhood obesity in the United States. At present, approximately nine million children over 6 years of age are considered obese According to American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) the protocol for obesity care for youth is to monitor the body mass index (BMI) routinely (at least annually) and offer appropriate counseling and guidance to children and their families. A report in the literature indicated that the number of children attending yearly well-child visits that include measurement of BMI is well below the AAP recommendation. The dramatic increase in childhood obesity raises the question of what is the healthcare provider’s level of involvement in prevention, identification, and treatment of childhood obesity, and the prevalence of childhood obesity. The purpose of this retrospective exploratory design was to examine the number and content of well-child visits in children 6-11 years of age and describe the difference in attendance and content of the healthcare visit based on type of provider.
Pediatric overweight is an especially severe problem because its childhood onset increases the overall length of exposure to the detrimental effects of overweight, accelerates the onset of chronic disease, and affects children’s physical, psychological, and social development. Several parental traits have been shown to be associated with an increased risk for childhood overweight. In our study, entitled “Determinants of the Prevalence and Intervention to Prevent of Child Obesity”, we quantified the mutual effects of environmental, parental education and income on the risk of obesity in a large population-based sample. The results of this study provide important information for health educators. We have identified the children of highly educated, income parents as a group to be targeted for overweight prevention and intervention efforts. Parents who are at higher SES may be warned that not only is their own health at stake but their children is also at increased risk for obesity and their associated diseases. We also added the interventions to prevention of child obesity with various systematic methods, which much help to individual, family base and also school programmes.
Body Mass Index (BMI),waist circumference, hip circumference and waist to hip ratio have been used as pointers to obesity/overweight. These are usually interpretable with defined norms, and or reference values. Obesity/overweight is defined to predict health risks, and provide comparisons between populations. Several of these definitions exist for many countries, and scarcely for Nigeria. Heredity,environment,culture, race,ethnicity,are some factors affecting somatotype, which is described in terms of distribution of body composition, size and type. Somatotype is important in the definition of overweight/obesity, and therefore its reference values and norms. Measures of obesity in children and teenagers’ are therefore different from that of adult population, and internationally. This study provided data on BMI, waist circumference, waist to hip ratio, waist to height ratio, and presented reference values for obesity among Nigeria children, and adolescents. We reported that waist circumference revealed the highest percentage of obesity.
The prevalence of obesity is increasing globally; with nearly half a billion of the world’s population now considered to be overweight or obese. The obesity epidemic is related both to dietary factors and to an increasing sedentary life style. Obesity has significant co-morbidities and there are associated with substantial healthcare and social costs. The health impact of increasing prevalence of obesity among children is a serious concern. Heart diseases and diabetes were rare among children and young adult in the previous century but today supposed to be the disease of the elderly; there diseases are frequently occurring in the younger generation. This study has thus highlighted the need to not only improve the awareness on prevention of obesity among children but need to motivate them to practice healthy life style is utmost essential.
Obesity is described as a chronic disease affecting adults, children, and adolescents. It has become a significant burden for the healthcare system and is considered one of the top health problems contributing to severe complications from childhood through adulthood. Obesity represents one of the most worrisome health problems in the United States, because it directly affects the health of individuals. The purpose of this work was to educate parents and grandparents of Latino children under the age of 17 regarding the importance of healthy food choices and physical activities. The aim was to empower parents and grandparents to practice health promotion and disease prevention. A descriptive design with pretest and posttest was utilized to indicate the knowledge gained by participants after the instructional phase. Data analysis is presented to demonstrate an increased awareness and knowledge of healthy eating choices by the participants of the study. At the conclusion of the study, participants gained a better understanding about healthy eating and the importance of physical activity.
Down syndrome (DS) is the most common chromosomal anomaly among live born infants, occurring at a frequency of one in 700 live births. Individuals with DS are at increased risk for several endocrinological conditions, including hypothyroidism, growth retardation, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. The reason for the increased risk of obesity in DS individuals is unclear, but several mechanisms have been suggested, including a decreased resting metabolic rate and differences in physical activity patterns. Obesity and related morbidity and mortality are emerging as important long term consequences, with the increase in the life expectancy of people with DS. Adipokines such as leptin, which is a hormone secreted by adipocytes, acting in the hypothalamus to suppress appetite and regulate body weight, have been implicated in the pathophysiology of obesity. Leptin is a hormone secreted by adipocytes, acting in the hypothalamus to suppress appetite and regulate body weight. In this book we tried to highlight the hormonal key players for the development of obesity in children with Down syndrome.
Obesity Can Also Lead To Life-threatening Conditions Including Type 2 Diabetes, Insulin Resistance, High Blood Pressure, Heart Disease, Sleep Problems, Cancer And Other Disorders. The Prevention And Treatment Of Excess Weight Is Critical For The Health Of Both Individuals And Our Society. The Disease Therefore Incurs An Increasingly Heavy Burden Not Only On Overweight And Obese Citizens Themselves But Also On Health Care Systems, The Efficiency Of The Workforce And Society At Large. Obesity Is Frequent, Serious, Complex And Chronic.We Will Be Grateful To All The Readers Who Finally Judge The Quality Of This Book And Feedback For The Same Is Welcomed.
Two-thirds of the global disease burden will be attributable to chronic diseases associated with obesity and drive the individuals to many other chronic disease conditions which substantially increase the risk of hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, coronary artery disease, stroke, gallbladder disease and osteoarthritis, as well as cancers of the endometria, breast, prostate, and colon. The non fatal but debilitating health problems associated with obesity are respiratory problems, chronic musculoskeletal problems, skin problems and infertility. Excessive body weight has also been predictable to worsen other medical conditions like knee osteoarthritis, back pain, sleep apnea, gout and related health complications and it is now prevalent among the rural population affecting all the age groups but mostly among women. The book focus on the prevalence and assessment of obesity with contributing factors, knowledge and practice gaps of women who are at-risk of excess weight so that it can help to modify the risk of obesity/weight gain among obese by modifying their lifestyle gradually through intervention.
Childhood obesity is a condition where excess body fat negatively affects a child's health or well-being. Due to the rising prevalence of obesity in children and its many adverse health effects, it is being recognized as a serious public health concern. The greatest risk factor for child obesity is the obesity of both parents. The escalation of obese children is due to the upsurge of technology, increase in snacks and portion size of meals, and the decrease in the physical activity of children. So, the most important issue here is to increase the physical activity and avoiding the sedentary life.
This book draws conclusion on the increasingly high burden of overweight and obesity among the children in a developing country setting. Obesity prevalence is found to be highest among the boys, children belonging to the middle income families and those in the younger age groups. The determinants of the obesity exist within the home and school environment. Children are spending an alarmingly large part of their daily time on sedentary activities, mostly on television. Having minimal physical activity opportunities both at school and home and easier access to energy rich fast foods are found to be the major determinants of obesity. Children who are poor in sports and those who want to loose weight were very obese indicating that there is an unmet need as far as sports opportunities is concerned. The consumption of fruits is associated with protection against obesity a factor that emphasizes towards healthier eating in daily life.
Obesity can be considered as a chronic disorder of energy imbalance, in which a long-term excess of energy intake over expenditure leads to the storage of that excess energy as adipose tissue. This study aimed to investigate whether childhood obesity in primary school girls affects the levels of measured hormones, peptides and neurotransmitters as well as their cognitive function and to study the relationships between the measured biochemical parameters and cognitive function in those girls. Childhood obesity represents a serious health problem. Obesity could induce a disturbance in the levels of the vital hormones especially GH and IGF-1. In addition, obese status in girls at this young age is associated with worse cognitive function which reflects the impact of obesity on educational achievement and learning ability in these girls. This may afford an aid in manipulating childhood obesity and developing strategies for treatment of this disease.
The obesity epidemic affects approximately a third of all North Americans and has become a leading health concern due to its link to insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Traditionally, prevention and treatment of obesity mainly depend on caloric restriction and increasing physical activity. Although short-term weight loss can be achieved by various dietary approaches, sustainability of weight loss seems to be difficult. This book provides the evidence that dietary supplementation of leucine prevents high fat diet-induced obesity, mitochondrial dysfunction, and insulin resistance, and elucidates the molecular mechanisms by which dietary leucine prevents chronic metabolic disorders, suggesting that dietary supplementation of leucine may provide an adjunct in the prevention and treatment of obesity-related diseases. The book should be especially useful for obese individuals, diabetic patients, and professionals in nutrition and metabolism research.
The determinants of the obesity lie within the home and school environment and the overall sociocultural phenomena. Children are spending an alarmingly large part of their daily time on sedentary activities, mostly on television. Having minimal physical activity opportunities both at school and home and easier access to energy rich fast foods are the major determinants of obesity. All the stakeholders in the society; government, education and health authorities, city planners and managers, transport, religious leaders and policy makers at the national and local level must realize that the childhood obesity has become a serious problem in Pakistani society. A major responsibility falls on the parents who have to provide the children healthiest possible environment available in the area. This is also true in terms of helping the children avail any opportunity to play and preventing the children from eating unhealthy high calorie-poor nutrition foods. Further studies are required to see the effects of exposure to other factors in addition to physical activity.
The prevalence of conduct problems in children impacts upon families, educational settings, and broader society within Australia. Conduct problems develop early in an individual''s life and can lead to more serious problems including substance abuse and delinquency in adolescence and adulthood. Given the high incidence of conduct problems in children, the need for prevention and early intervention strategies to target the onset and development of this phenomenon is paramount. This book focuses on early intervention strategies for reducing the incidence of conduct problems in children and explores a multi-modal early intervention and prevention program targeting children and families at-risk of the development of conduct problems.