Down’s syndrome (DS) is a genetic disorder in which there is a trisomy of 21st chromosome. Speech errors are common with larger number of phonological processes in children with Down’s syndrome, with delays characteristic of developmentally younger children at a similar language level. Present study aimed at comparing the phonological accuracy scores in Kannada speaking Down’s syndrome and language age matched normal children. Two groups of children were included in the study. Group one had children with Down’s syndrome (n = 35), of chronological age of 6-15 years while Group two consisted of age matched normal children (n = 60). A picture naming task was used to elicit the response. The sample was analysed for phonological accuracy measures of Percentage of Consonant Correct (PCC), Process Density Index (PDI), Percentage of Vowel Correct (PVC), and Percentage of Phoneme Correct (PPC). It was found that children with Down’s syndrome showed lesser scores in all the measures exclusive of PVC when compared with the language and age matched controls. It was found to be a delay rather than deviation in phonological development.
Down syndrome is one of the most important causes of mental retardation in the population. In the absence of prenatal screening and diagnosis, prevalence at birth in the United States would currently exceed 1: 600. the purpose of prenatal screening is to identify those women at the increased risk for an affected pregnancy and to maximize the options available to these women. Tests available: second trimester serum screening involves combing the maternal age- specific risk for an affected pregnancy with the risks associated with the concentrations of maternal serum alpha- fetoprotein (MSAFP), unconjugated estriol (uE3), and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) (triple testing). A forth analyte, inhibin-A, (Inh-A), is increasly being utilize (quadruple testing). Optimal second trimester screening requires the integration of a number of clinical variables, the most important of which is an accurate assessment of gestational age. In addition to Down Syndrome, the triple and Quadruple tests preferentially identify fetal trisomy 18, Turner syndrome, Triploidy, Trisomy 16 mosaicism, fetal death, Smith- Lemli- Opitz Syndrome, and steroid sulfatease deficiency.
The study was carried out to cephalometrically evaluate the morphology of cranial base, midface and dental characteristics in subjects with Down?s syndrome and to compare the same with that of normal. The growth of cranial base and maxilla was also evaluated. As the thorough knowledge of the craniofacial morphology and dental characteristics help the orthodontist in arriving at a more accurate diagnosis about orthodontic problems. The attempt of our study is to give an idea about the craniofacial morphology in individuals with Down?s syndrome, which will help us to understand the basic morphological characteristics of these individuals. This will lead us to reach a proper diagnosis and treatment planning.
The Institute Of Clinical Psychology, University of Karachi was established in response to the dire need for mental health profession and the acute dearth of professional psychological services in Pakistan.The unit of speech therapy is running by Dr, Raheela Khatoon who conducts evaluation, diagnosis and treatment of pathologies that comes within the realm of major categories of speech and language disorders i.e., disorder of fluency (stuttering), articulation disorders, hearing impairment and speech & language-related pathologies in neurological disorders like aphasia, dysphasia dysartheria, & other cognitive disorders. Speech-language therapy test were developed for diagnosis and treatment of speech & language-related pathologies in adults and children. Dr. Raheela Khatoon also teach the speech therapy subject in Diploma of Rebabilition Childhood Disorders in institute of Clinical Psychology, University of Karachi.
The purpose of the study was to describe the communication of toddlers with Down syndrome in everyday routines with their caregivers within four intervention time points. Archival video data of caregiver-implemented language intervention from the KidTalk Tactics Project were used to describe the communication of three children, ages 12 to 20 months, measured at four time periods across caregiving, pre-academic, and play routines. Increases in the frequency of single words and multiple word phrases were evident for all children. Variability in the frequency of communication acts in different routines were noted. The results of this study contribute to the expanding literature on caregiver-implemented intervention in natural environments by examining the unique profiles of toddlers with Down syndrome and the context in which they participated with their caregivers.
Down syndrome (DS) is the most common chromosomal anomaly among live born infants, occurring at a frequency of one in 700 live births. Individuals with DS are at increased risk for several endocrinological conditions, including hypothyroidism, growth retardation, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. The reason for the increased risk of obesity in DS individuals is unclear, but several mechanisms have been suggested, including a decreased resting metabolic rate and differences in physical activity patterns. Obesity and related morbidity and mortality are emerging as important long term consequences, with the increase in the life expectancy of people with DS. Adipokines such as leptin, which is a hormone secreted by adipocytes, acting in the hypothalamus to suppress appetite and regulate body weight, have been implicated in the pathophysiology of obesity. Leptin is a hormone secreted by adipocytes, acting in the hypothalamus to suppress appetite and regulate body weight. In this book we tried to highlight the hormonal key players for the development of obesity in children with Down syndrome.
In an experimental, single case study, I investigate the disordered speech of a (4 1/2) year old Ndebele speaking child through a comparative study. A “cognitively” normal (41/4) year old Ndebele speaking child, is used as the control of the study. The aim of the investigation is to establish the speech sound system the subject is using and to test whether assessment protocols based on English, such as the Phonological Assessment Of Child Speech (PACS) framework by Grunwell (1985), suit the diagnosis of this subject''s speech disorder. The investigation is based on data collected from the subjects and the control through single 40-minute assessment sessions (one after the other) using probe tasks in the form of a picture alphabetic chart in Ndebele, designed for this study. Data collected is analysed according to Grunwell''s (PACS) framework. The PACS analysis established that the speech sound system of the subject of study differed from that of the control as a result of delayed acquisition of certain speech segments; this is evidenced by a reduced inventory of speech sounds when compared to the control..
English has currently been spoken all over the world, which substantially influences its development. In Bangladesh, English is studied and increasingly spoken on daily basis by some people and it has emerged as a noticeable variety not necessarily in conformity with either British English or American English. It is a matter of regret that most of the secondary level students in our country are out of the touch of developing speaking skill in English. As a result, errors remain in spoken English. Most of the cases, errors are found in pronunciation and grammar which are the integral and integrated part of second or foreign language since it directly affects the speaker’s communicative competence as well as performance.This research monograph reviews errors on phonological and grammatical aspects of spoken English with theoretical background and procedures of error analysis.It empirically through qualitative and quantitative method finds out the errors & reasons in pronunciation, articles, auxiliaries and prepositions. Finally, it provides some recommendations for effective remedial measures for developing spoken English in the light of the theoretical and empirical findings.
This book presents phonological variation in the Gikuyu language spoken by Kamba speakers in Thika District. Its particular focus is on the variation in consonants and pitch pattern and whether these two are influenced by gender and age. The pronunciation of the selected phonemes and pitch by Kamba speakers who use Gikuyu is measured against the standard Gikuyu consonants and pitch pattern, then the variation is noted down. There are a lot of studies that have been carried out on language variation especially in the major world languages such as English and French. However, very little has been featured in the African context. The author providing information on African Languages variation, especially when they come into contact. This book is highly recommended for the scholars, students and researchers who are doing more on phonological variation as spoken by other people.
Burnout is reflected in pathological emotional depletion and maladaptive detachment that is a secondary result of exposure prolonged occupational stress. It is comprised of three dimensions, namely, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment. Health care professionals are at very high risk of developing burnout. This can be attributed to the fact that health care professionals are directly and continuously involved with human beings in their professions, and the intensity of these relationships can create or amplify the possibility of developing stress-related symptoms. Burnout syndrome is becoming increasingly recognized as one of the most serious occupational hazards for nurses especially those who work in critical care units and acute care units. This book shows the prevalence of burnout in nurses working in the critical care unit in one of the hospitals in Kenya. It also gives an insight on what the nurses perceive as leading to the development of burnout and measures that can be implemented to mitigate the development of burnout in nurses.
This book presents a lexical and phonological description of the Spanish dialect spoken in the town of Noanamito, Lopez de Micay, Colombia. The people who live in this community are mostly of African descent and their speech is characterized by lexical and phonological patterns that differ from the rest of the country. The following phonological features are illustrated: a) /s/ deletion and aspiration; b) the cluster /ao/ (pronunciation variant that occurs at the end of words ending in /ado/); c) final /d/ deletion; d) phonological reduction of inflected estar ‘be''; and e) fricatives /s/ & /f/ shifted to [h] word initially. Some lexical features that are characteristic of this town are also described, such as: the use of the word potrillo (to refer to a canoe) or the word papiao (to refer to someone who has just eaten).