Tanzania depends exclusively on imports for its oil requirements. The country’s dependency on oil imports has made it very vulnerable to increases in world oil prices and local oil demand. For instance, due to the increase in demand and prices the value of the country’s oil imports rose from US$ 400.3 million in 2003 to US$ 1.1 billion in 2005. Therefore, it is obvious that the cost of importing oil is a heavy burden for the country’s economy. This study is an attempt to contribute towards the knowledge base regarding the feasibility of producing biofuels in the Tanzania so as to reduce the country’s dependence on oil imports. The results show that ethanol can be produced in the country for as low as US$ 0.276 per litre by using sugarcane as a feedstock. Moreover, the results show that ethanol produced in the country can compete with traditional fossil petrol if world oil prices would not fall below US$ 30 a barrel. Since the world oil price is well above US$ 30 a barrel, then it can be concluded that ethanol can be produced competitively in Tanzania. Moreover, the results show that the production of biodiesel would require the world oil price to be at least US$ 60 a barrel.
The global energy supply is currently based mainly on fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas, and coal. These fossil fuels cause serious environmental, political and social problems. Therefore, it is imperative to look for more sustainable energy sources that may solve the abovementioned problems. For several decades, (inter)national governments have made plans to reduce the economy’s dependency on fossil fuels by the substitution of alternative energy sources such as renewable energy sources. The Technological Innovation Systems approach is most suitable for the analysis of the development and diffusion of renewable energy sources, because it focuses on a particular technology and it includes factors that are specific to the technology studied. In this research work we have presented the relation between the way in which System Functions are being fulfilled and how they contribute to the development and diffusion of biomass energy particularly Jatropha biofuels in Tanzania, since the technology is locally so novel that it will require substantial experimentation in order to be commercially viable and applicable on a larger scale.
This work is focused on the construction and uses of genome-scale metabolic models to efficiently obtain biofuels, such as ethanol and hydrogen. As a target organism, cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 was chosen. This organism has been studied as a potential photon-fuelled production platform, for its ability to grow only from carbon dioxide, water and photons. This dissertation verses about methods to model, analyse, estimate and predict the metabolic behaviour of cells. Principal goal is to extract knowledge from the different biological aspects of an organism in order to use it for an industrial relevant objective. The work presented here unveils the capabilities of cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 to evolve interesting metabolites, such as succinate, ethanol and hydrogen, as a clean production platform.
Foreign Direct Investment is recognised as the engine for economic growth in both the developed and developing world. If properly harnessed, it may bring about employment opportunities, transfer of skills and technology and capital. The attraction of FDI in a new sector requires proper preparation in terms of laws and policies. The need becomes more pressing in the fast growing biofuels sector which is full of social, economic, political and environmental controversies. Biofuels production competes for land, water and food crops amongst other resources. With these controversies, biofuels production needs to be properly regulated in order to strike a balance between these competing and often conflicting interests. Such are the challenges faced by Tanzania and indeed many other developing states eager to attract investments in this new and rapidly expanding sector.
This book has a concise information on the impact of criteria pollutants especially Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon in air and soils around asphalt producing facilities.It trys to highlight the potential ecological and human defects such activity could pose in the environment if best available techniques(BAT)are not put in place to regulate the emission of pollutants during production processes.It also contains infomation on the environmental impact of such anthropogenic agents on the environment.The data, statistical analysis carried out and results obtained serve as a guide to individuals, regulators and Government agencies on how to better formulate policies and regulations that are ecologically and environmentally friendly for industries to operate.Finally, it could serve as a research reference for prospective academia working in related disciplines .
Although the pregnant mother and the baby she is carrying are predominantly the centre of attention during pregnancy; it is the father who has a particularly interesting position. The notion of fatherhood seems to encounter a unique sensibility towards its environment, which results in different ideas on fatherhood in every society. The constructed idea of fatherhood is especially interesting when looking at fathers in the process of shaping their new role. In the period of pregnancy this is an ongoing process in which expectant fathers continuously approach their environment with greater sensitivity. It is the fathers’ environment that becomes the centre of reference in developing his view on fatherhood. Considering the environment to be of great importance to the father in the pregnancy period, what happens when this environment poses risks? Changes affecting the contextually sensitive position of the expectant father are likely to be of influence on the expectant fatherhood experience. Irregularities in the direct personal and broader social environment will be approached as possibly given rise to ‘risks’. This research explores how risks are felt and managed accordingly.
Concerns about volatile crude oil prices, energy security, and environmental issues are driving the production and use of renewable energy in the United States. Woody biomass can be used as feedstock for solid or liquid fuels or electricity generation. This book, therefore, provides economic analysis models for woody biomass to biofuels to minimize the delivered cost and maximize the net present value. At first, an economic analysis model to estimate the delivered cost of woody biomass using different woody biomass handling systems was developed in the book. The model was designed to minimize the total annual delivered cost of woody biomass and applied to the central Appalachian region. Secondly, the economic feasibility of a woody biomass-based ethanol facility was analyzed using a mixed integer programming model. The model is designed to maximize the net present value (NPV) of a facility over its economic life. At last, a multi-equation model was developed to assess the economics of a coal/biomass-to-liquids (CBTL) fuel plant in West Virginia. This book will be of interest to forest landowners, sawmill managers, and students and researchers in woody biomass processing.
Considering the international initiative effort of the Roundtable on Sustainable Biofuels (RSB) on the farmers, NGOs, organizations, experts, governments and inter-government agencies on the sustainability of biofuels production, processing and provision of certification system for biofuels sustainability standards, which encompasses social, environmental and economic criteria, there is possibility for the emergence of the RSB to influence the way and means of producing biofuel products.
The main goal of this project is to find out how to maintain positive economic growth in the light of increasing energy dependency in Lithuania. An empirical analysis has been performed whereby correlation analysis was used to establish the relationship between economic growth and energy dependency in the Eastern European country of Lithuania. We found that there is a net inverse relationship between energy dependency and economic growth. Lithuania has to rely much more on energy imports especially after the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant's closure in 2010. In order to maintain positive economic growth, it is vital to look for viable ways to reduce energy dependency. One of the ways - by producing biofuels for the transport sector domestically and thereby reducing imports is a sizeable component of Lithuania’s gross domestic product. Current domestic installed capacities for producing biofuels are not sufficient. A worsening energy situation in Lithuania require more efficient use of already installed capacities and investments in new ones. Renewable energy production can be one of the solutions contributing to energy security.
This book has been based upon Jorinda Ballering’s bachelor dissertation, commissioned by the Ministry of Urban Development and Tourism of Sarawak- nowadays Ministry of Tourism and Heritage,Sarawak (MinTH). This paper explores Lundu District,a relatively undeveloped region in Malaysian Borneo, upon its tourism potential. The research stresses that ‘understanding the interrelation and dependency among tourism elements is vital to achieve success’. The thesis has been presented for all actors involved in Lundu District at the MinTH. In 2010 the dissertation has beenawarded by the German Society for Research (DGT) with the Best Paper on Sustainability in Tourism Award. Mr. Bolhan Budeng – Head of Ecotourism and Community Participation "This thesis has enabled us to gain an insight intoLundu's tourism product-market combinations, theindepth stakeholder analysis and futurerecommendations have been of great use to theMinistry of Urban Development and Tourism in Sawarak for opening this area up for international tourism". Jorinda BalleringEmail: email@example.com
Forest resources are decreasing at a higher rate in Tanzania. One alternative to cover for the effect is through afforestation of the possible areas to benefit from tree resources. Mufindi is one of the districts in Tanzania where majority of people practice small scale forestry activities. It was important to study and understand the insight and motivation of these farmers in their small scale forest activities. Moreover, different challenges faced by farmers had to be analyzed to understand on possible ways to improve from the current situation.The study findings offer a good direction as a solution of some of the challenges at a local scale and on policy issues. Tanzania is growing very fast both economically and in terms of population and forest resources are much needed. The sustainability of small scale forestry in Mufindi and other parts of the country is important and part and parcel of the vision of Tanzania as a mid-economy country by 2025.
It is widely accepted that health systems are not producing the desired output of health interventions due to factors such as insufficient skilled and experienced health personnel, health personnel that lack motivation, lack of management skills, poor working conditions and environment, and inadequate remuneration. This study explores the factors that positively as well as negatively affect performance of nurses who are working in hospitals and Health centers administrated by Addis Ababa Health Bureau with the endeavor of providing a recommendation for improving the performance of nurses. The study followed a quantitative research approach using an explorative descriptive design. A survey method using questionnaires was applied. The study revealed that hospitals and health centers administrated by Addis Ababa health Bureau have major deficiencies in human resource management aspects. These aspects are strongly associated with level of performance of health personnel. Based on the results, recommendations were proposed.
A detailed, step-by-step book covering the entire hedge fund evaluation process Investing in hedge funds is different from investing in other asset classes. There is much less publicly available information about hedge funds performance than there is about mutual funds or individual stocks. Consequently, investing in this class requires more sophisticated investment knowledge, greater due diligence, and, in many cases, a better-developed ability to evaluate investment managers. Hedge Fund Analysis provides a broad framework of how to approach this endeavor, from initial screening to analytical techniques, interviewing skills, and legal and contract negotiations. Along the way, it demonstrates a variety of mechanisms for monitoring and tracking hedge funds and the underlying hedge fund portfolios—explaining each stage of the process in minute detail and providing specific examples which fully explain the opportunities and challenges you'll face each step of the way. Provides a detailed look at how to source hedge funds, screen through them, and rank their strengths and weaknesses Lays out a thorough process for evaluating funds, from initial interviews to performance analysis to onsite meetings Reveals what questions to ask by strategy in order to understand the underlying risk factors associated with each Highlights non-investment analysis, including operational due diligence and risk management, as integral elements in the process Written by a financial professional with over twenty years of experience conducting investment manager due diligence, this book will put you in a position to make more informed decisions when investing in hedge funds.
In the past few years, the use of telecommunications services has shown an increasing trend and the number of companies investing in this industry has also increased in Tanzania because of liberalization policies in the 1990s. This has led to an increase in competition in this industry and we expect an increase in the level of employment if the industry in competitive. This work seeks to answer the question: "Does increase in competition translate into increase in employment in telecommunications industry in Tanzania?". Only a few individuals have ventured in this subject of telecommunications industry but no one has written anything on the effect of competition in this industry in Tanzania on the labor market (specifically net employment effect). Therefore, this book provides the findings on whether competition has a not positive effect on employment in the telecommunications industry in this country. The use of panel data over seventeen years and controlling for fixed effects in the model provide reliable results. The analysis should be able to shed light on this subject and useful to professionals in Telecommunications Industry and the Government of Tanzania in policy making.
This study discusses about need, scope and potentials for further investment in Bangladesh tea. Bangladesh produced 58.30 million Kg and consumed 37.44 million Kg of tea in 2003. Tea provides employment to 115,533 people. It alleviates rural poverty. Abrupt increase in internal consumption causes to decrease exportable surplus with low rate of production, which causes to decline tea export. If these trends continue the country will be a net importer of tea in 2017. Production is to be increased to meet internal demand and to retain export of tea. For producing additional tea new avenues like small holding tea cultivation (SHTC) is to be explored. This study introduces investment covering gestation period within which tea plants are brought to bearing. Comparative advantage is available in tea. Investment in tea seems to be viable since NPV is positive, B-C ratio is greater than one and IRR is above market rate of interest. The outcomes of development projects are extremely discriminatory ownership-wise, class-wise and region-wise. Investment in SHTC, small & least developed estates may help Bangladesh to emerge as one of the major tea producing and exporting countries in the World.