In this book, S. A. Lloyd provides a radical interpretation of Hobbes' laws of nature, revealing them to be not egoistic precepts of personal prudence but rather moral instructions for obtaining the common good. This account of Hobbes' moral philosophy stands in contrast to both divine command and rational choice interpretations. Drawing from the core notion of reciprocity, Lloyd explains Hobbes' system of 'cases in the law of nature' and situates Hobbes' moral philosophy in the broader context of his political philosophy and views on religion. Offering ingenious new arguments, Lloyd defends a reciprocity interpretation of the laws of nature through which humanity's common good is secured.
The right of revolution in the social contract theories of Thomas Hobbes and John Locke is a curious topic. This paper discusses the differences and similarities between the two philosophers’ discussions of this topic. It is argued that Hobbes and Locke differ most drastically on the notion of who the sovereign is. While Hobbes prefers to establish the sovereign as a demigod, Locke understands the sovereign as a mortal, and thus fallible, man. It is because of this distinction that Hobbes and Locke disagree on the notion of the right of revolution. Furthermore, the American Founding Fathers, including James Madison and Thomas Jefferson, inherited Locke’s perspective on this matter when arguing for the independence of the colonies. Finally, it is the conclusion of this paper that this notion of the right of revolution continues today, when observing the numerous political revolutions around the world.
The Oxford Handbook of Hobbes collects twenty-six newly commissioned, original chapters on the philosophy of the English thinker Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679). The chapters included in this Oxford Handbook cover the full range of Hobbes's thought his philosophy of logic and language; his view of physics and scientific method; his ethics, political philosophy, and philosophy of law; and his views of religion, history, and literature.
The concept of power is quite difficult to understand given its literal connotation. However, this Book sought to unveil the rational principles for the construction of power in order to install a regime of communication shorn of unnecessary ambiguity that would not be subject to destruction from within. According to Thomas Hobbes, human beings are generally inclined to a perpetual and restless desire for power after power that ceases only in death. The implication is that, the struggle for ‘power after power’ and means of controlling it is natural to man. The book relies more on library search for the source of its materials where emphasis was placed on Thomas Hobbes’ masterpiece, the Leviathan. References were also made to human life and experiences where necessary. Hobbes viewed power as the governing component in all those qualities one seeks to know or get. He also considers power as a present means, for man to obtain some future apparent good. The book concludes that power is indeed, an essential part of human person. It is a hinge on which revolve the daily activities of man. Those who rule over others do so because of the mandate given them by the people.
Thomas Hobbes was the first great English political philosopher. His work excited intense controversy among his contemporaries and continues to do so in our own time. In this masterly introduction to his work, Bernard Gert provides the first account of Hobbes’s political and moral philosophy that makes it clear why he is regarded as one of the best philosophers of all time in both of these fields. In a succinct and engaging analysis the book illustrates that the commonly accepted view of Hobbes as holding psychological egoism is not only incompatible with his account of human nature but is also incompatible with the moral and political theories that he puts forward. It also explains why Hobbes’s contemporaries did not accept his explicit claim to be providing a natural law account of morality. Gert shows that for Hobbes, civil society is established by a free-gift of their right of nature by the citizens; it does not involve a mutual contract between citizens and sovereign. As injustice involves breaking a contract, the sovereign cannot be unjust; however, the sovereign can be guilty of ingratitude, which is immoral. This distinction between injustice and immorality is part of a sophisticated and nuanced political theory that is in stark contrast to the reading often incorrectly attributed to Hobbes that “might makes right”. It illustrates how Hobbes’s goal of avoiding civil war provides the key to understanding his moral and political philosophy. Hobbes: Prince of Peace is likely to become the classic introduction to the work of Thomas Hobbes and will be a valuable resource for scholars and students seeking to understand the importance and relevance of his work today.
The stereochemistry control of radical reactions has been a field of intense investigations in the last 20 years. Rules have been proposed to rationalize the results, interestingly these rules parallels the ones formerly developed for ionic and concerted reactions. The use of captodative radicals combined with phenylseleno group transfer reaction is a powerful tool which allows a wide range of chain reaction in intra and inter molecular manner. In this book we will present several aspects of these type of radical generated form selenylated alpha hydroxy acids derivatives. These reaction have been studied using different substrates. A new method of obtaining optically pure dioxalones is also presented. These reactions might be very useful during delicate steps of total synthesis of natural products. Organic chemists could find very useful some of the application that are represented in this book especially the good stereoselectivity control that these reaction have.
This is an analysis of flank and shift effects in political sociology that focuses on migrant parties in eight European countries. In a positive radical flank effect the radical party makes the moderate and mildly-threatening parties look good. In turn, that moderate party then gains power or at least many of their ends. A negative radical flank effect occurs when the actual or perceived association of the moderate party with the radical party causes the moderate party to lose support. Radical shift effects are when the moderate or conservative party shifts its policy toward the radical direction. In this case, the radical party may become a coalition partner with the moderate or conservative party. And conservative or moderate shift is when the radical party shifts its policy toward a more moderate direction in order to assume power or court votes.
This work was undertaken to gain insights into mechanistic pathways in radical addition reactions. The multicomponent orbital interactions observed in this study revealed that the radical centre may not be the only or the most reacting centre in the free radical moiety. Contrary to widespread belief, radicals may be subjected to the same driving forces that operate during nucleophile-electrophile reactions. It appears that the charge transfer interaction between the radical and substrate will depend on the electrophilicity of the radical and charges operating during the reaction phase. In the reactions of radicals with strong electrophilic character, where charge separation exists in the transition state, coulombic interactions may dominate. In this instance neglect of charges can lead to misleading results. The orbital interactions observed in this study appear to have a profound effect on the geometry of the reacting systems. Two reacting moieties tend to orient themselves in such a way so as to maximize the energy gained through all possible orbital interactions. This is the principal factor in site specific reactions between electrophiles and nucleophiles.
Five reaction schemes are suggested for the initiated nonbranched-chain addition of free radicals to the multiple bonds of the unsaturated compounds. The proposed schemes include the reaction competing with chain propagation reactions through a reactive free radical. The chain evolution stage in these schemes involves three or four types of free radicals. One of them is relatively low-reactive and inhibits the chain process by shortening of the kinetic chain length. Based on the suggested schemes, nine rate equations (containing one to three parameters to be determined directly) are deduced using quasi-steady-state treatment. These equations provide good fits for the nonmonotonic (peaking) dependences of the formation rates of the molecular products (1:1 adducts) on the concentration of the unsaturated component in binary systems consisting of a saturated component (hydrocarbon, alcohol, etc.) and an unsaturated component (olefin, allyl alcohol, formaldehyde, or dioxygen). The unsaturated compound in these systems is both a reactant and an autoinhibitor generating low-reactive free radicals. The energetics of the key radical-molecule reactions is considered.
Much of the apocrypha was named for the "doubting" disciple, such as The Gospel of Thomas, The Book of Thomas the Contender, and The Acts of the Apostle Thomas, yet these traditions do not address Thomas's story from The Gospel of John. In fact, Thomas becomes the favored disciple in The Book of Thomas the Contender and logion 13 of The Gospel of Thomas. In The Acts of the Apostle Thomas the disciple leaves Rome to evangelize in India where he is eventually martyred. Today, he is still revered in South India as the messenger that brought Christianity to the country and pilgrims travel to his tomb in Mylapore. These traditions portray Thomas as anything but doubtful. With the discovery of the Nag Hammadi library, scholarship on Thomasine traditions in early Christianity has increased, but scholarship of the Mediterranean and India have remained relatively isolated. This paper seeks to discuss the earlier history of Thomas as a religious icon, from its initial appearances in the first century through its earlier developments in India, and evince not only the historical progression linking those traditions, but also the thematic development across time and regions.
The concern about the service management in general and service operations management in particular emerged in the 1970s and beyond, as a result of extraordinary role the service sector is played in production; the percentage of service sector contribution in GDP in the developed countries in 2003 reached 70% (Australia 67.5%, France 66.2%, Japan 69.6% and Germany 70.1%. So the academic contribution of operations management has been directed toward service, and the service operations management emerged as a field of study, despite this academic direction, the majority of academic contributions is still manufacturing oriented; the percentage of published articles of service operations management in ten Journals is 7.5% over the period (1997-2002); accordingly the challenge is still exist to develop the field of service operations management, both form research and teaching perspective.
The nucleophilic displacement reaction has been differentiated into SN1 and SN2 reactions. While in an SN2 reaction bond formation and breaking proceed simultaneously, the SN1 reaction proceeds via a stepwise mechanism. In most textbooks the SN1 reaction is defined as a reaction where the initial ionization (k1) is rate determining and the subsequent reaction of the carbocation with the solvent is faster. But this simple reaction scheme is only valid for systems where a highly reactive carbocation is formed. Mechanistic changes can occur when the lifetime of the intermediate carbocation is varied. The lifetime of the carbocation depends on its electrophilicity and the nucleophilicity of the solvent. The present work deals with the solvolyses of fluoro-substituted benzhydryl derivatives, the solvolyses of benzhydryl fluorides, the Change from SN1 to SN2 mechanism and the leaving group Dependence of the SN1/SN2 Ratio.
The concept of a radical was introduced by J. H. M. Wedderburn in 1908, for determination of structures of algebras and later on various radicals have been proposed by Artin, Baer, Jacobson, Brown-McCoy, Levitzki etc. for study of rings in the forties. The general theory of radicals was initiated by Kurosh (1953) and Amitsur in the early fifties. Andrunakievic, Sulinski, Divinsky and many others have followed up the works of Kurosh and Amitsur. The first example of a radical was the nilradical introduced in (Kothe 1930), based on a suggestion in (Wedderburn 1908). In the next few years several other radicals were discovered, of which the most important example is the Jacobson radical. The general theory of radicals was defined independently by (Amitsur 1952, 1954, 1954b) and Kurosh (1953).
The Pauson-Khand reaction is an important reaction in the field of organic chemistry. It involves the transition-metal catalysed cycloaddition of an alkyne, an alkene and carbon monoxide, to produce cyclopentenones. The importance of this reaction originates from its high value in transforming simple components into the synthetically useful cyclopentenone unit, in which a high degree of molecular complexity can be achieved in a single step, with impressive stereochemical and regiochemical control. The Pauson-Khand Reaction investigates the nature and many variations of this reaction. Topics covered include: the mechanisms of Pauson‐Khand-type reactions non chiral intramolecular and intermolecular versions of Pauson‐Khand reactions asymmetric Pauson‐Khand reaction using chiral auxiliaries the enantioselective Pauson‐Khand reaction Pauson‐Khand reactions catalysed by metals other than cobalt unconventional Pauson‐Khand reactions the Pauson‐Khand reaction in total synthesis Presenting a comprehensive overview of this fundamental reaction, The Pauson-Khand Reaction will find a place on the bookshelves of any organic or organometallic chemist.
Reactions in which one of the intermediate or end products of the reaction can act as catalysts in the reaction that is called autocatalytic reactions. In this case the catalyst is supplied by himself reactant system. Under certain conditions, autocatalytic reactions may occur in an uncontrolled regime, exploded. In many complex systems, the existence of autocatalytic reaction leads to periodic oscillations of the concentrations of certain intermediates. Autocatalytic phenomena can occur in homogeneous systems and in heterogeneous systems. Autocatalytic reactions taking place in a homogeneous reaction taking place as a singular, it realized a decrease, an increase, monotonous concentration of reactants and reaction products. In such a system of periodic oscillations can not occur concentrations of chemical species, so there may be a temporal sequence?