Radical Western Feminism advocates building separate relationships independent of men. Thus in Western feminist principles, marriages and motherhood are seen as forms of exploitation. The result has been more divorces and a heightened number of kids on the streets. African women, faced with bread and butter issues, such as inadequate water and food securities, inadequate healthy systems, inadequate jobs, early mortality rates, AIDS/HIV, and abusive political practices, however, have to forge healthier relationships with their men. Radical Western feminism; hence, has been labeled a foreign import, unsuitable for gender mainstreaming in the African context. This discussion, noting the failures of feminist approaches argues for the need to explore approaches that promote complementarity roles between men and women instead of competition. This discussion thus proposes engaging the African Womanist theory, which according to Hudson –Weeds, places mothers as leaders while advocating for gender reciprocity, truth, balance, and justice as pathways to achieving gender equity.
Feminism, as adopted in this study, is distinctive in nature as it depicts the concepts of accomodationism and motherism in its attempt to emancipate the female from male subjugation. It is different from Western feminism as it projects gender complementarity and gives room to caring and nurturing of children. This practice makes African feminism to be tagged neutral. Feminism is an attempt by the womenfolk to universally liberate itself from male chauvinism and patriarchy. It aims at making the position of women at home, at work, at school, in the street etc. more challenging to themselves and their menfolk in the social phenomenon.
A History of Women in the West V 4 – Emerging Feminism from Revolution to World War (Paper)
A History of Women in the West V 4 – Emerging Feminism from Revolution to World War
The research is an intensive exploration of the feminist view point in a more of comparative manner.It is a comparative presentation of the prominent features of feminism as reflected in the selected works of fiction.Some salient issues are embodied in the novels selected for the study.The two novels selected for this particular research are 'Nervous Conditions',by Tsitsi Dangarembga,and 'So Long a letter',by Mariama Ba.
This book blatantly critical of patriarchy and shed light on the knowledge that improve the position of women from the historical perspective to contemporary world. This book also emphasizes on those knowledge and strategy that clobber mysterious philosophy of patriarchal society and covet to retrieve the dissipated true position of women in society. This theoretical perspective is a debatable issue world wide as feminists have taken different standpoints for their irrespective ideological stances. The current book intended to expedite the social movement of feminists through the epigrammatic exercise of knowledge. It does not challenge the existing discourse. The views [e.g., Husband and wife are one; and that one is the husband (Blockstone); A horse, whether good or bad, needs a spur; a woman, whether good or bad, needs a lord and master, and sometimes a stick (De pison)] that delude people and espouse the fettering and reprehensible knowledge have been examined in this book. The current study extrapolates the possible way out of women’s current subordinate position pinpointing the scintillating path of women emancipation.
The motivation for this study was a realization of the need to seek from the perspectives of both males and females the different meanings and experiences of patriarchy. The phenomena of patriarchy can thus not be understood and interpreted in terms of the total socio-cultural context which encompasses it. The study was conducted in Peka, Leribe,in six villages.It took an insider perspective. Data collection was by means of unstructured interviewing, participant observation and life histories.Regarding the analysis and interpretation of the qualitative data, an inductive analytical strategy was followed. Apart from that, an important emphasis was placed on deconstruction. The deconstruction of ethnographic texts provided access to the mode in which patriarchy is/was constructed,constituted and entrenched in Basotho life.It detects the shifted,deferred and concealed meanings of patriarchy,reveals that patriarchy hinders gender equality and has several facets, that male and female informants viewed, understood, explained and experienced it differently. In conclusion,the study challenges the Basotho government and society to address gender discrepancies and inequalities.
This text is a shona cultural reading into the spiritual issues in Charles Mungoshi''s Waiting for the Rain and Chenjerai Hove''s Ancestors. Shona cultural concepts such as Ngozi, Nhodzerwa, Mamhepo, Vadzimu and Munyama are explored and linked to the material being of Africans who are suffering under the yoke of colonialism. Mungoshi''s handling of colonialism as a form of Ngozi which has manifested itself as a huge superstition and historical monster is shown to bring out contradictory African narratives one of resistance and one of collaboration. Hove is shown to experiment with spirit possession, magic realism, hallucination and hybridism to create a female centred narrative of resistance. Waiting for the Rain is shown to be successful in showing the effects of colonialism in alienating the African individual from his society resulting in the degeneration of social relations but failing to arm the reader with weapons to end the disillusionment. Ancestors is shown to give women a voice and taking it back through Mucha thereby failing to put up an alternative vision.
It can be argued that capitalism and patriarchy are the terms which are existing with the support of each other. This dualistic relationship will be always a subject for the feminists who are fighting against. The overcoming struggle against the sexual, racial, and generational hierarchies built upon the wage has no ending point in both academy and the everday life, on the streets. As Federici argues (2008),‘‘ the lesson of the feminist movement is still crucial today. Feminists in the seventies tried to understand the roots of women‘s oppression, of women‘s exploitation and gender hierarchies. They describe them as stemming from a unequal division of labor forcing women to work for the reproduction of the working class.‘‘ In that sense it is imprtant to analyze and working together with the housewives and the home-based workers at the conflict level. Altough there are various of theories it is important to analyze and interpret how these theories can convert themselves in to the practices among the women in everday life.
This book examines the nature of indigenous knowledge portrayed in Shona traditional games and how it can be used towards child development. Foreign influence apparently made many people to despise African cultures in general, hence the need to prove that African indigenous knowledge, as is seen in Shona indigenous games, is useful. Some indigenous knowledge has continued to exist in its original form while some has vanished or changed with time. There are several clusters of knowledge that can either be scientific, modern or indigenous. Indigenous knowledge refers to local knowledge existing within and developed around the specific conditions of individuals, indigenous to a particular geographical location and passed on to the next generation through oral tradition. The first section of the book deals with indigenous knowledge and a general overview of the Shona people of Zimbabwe. The second, third and fourth sections of this book deal with the nature and structure of African games and their contribution towards child development. Selected Shona traditional musical and non musical games are presented for analysis.
Subject to Biography – Psychoanalysis, Feminism, & Writing Women?s Lives (Paper)
Since the beginning of Zimbabwe’s Land Reform Programme in the year 2000, the country has experienced massive political as well as socio- economic setbacks. The problem emanating from the fact that when the Zimbabwean war veterans took over farms from white commercial farmers, they lacked the necessary training and resources needed to sustain agricultural productivity, eventually damaging Zimbabwe’s once agrarian based economy. As a damage- control mode, the Zimbabwean government has over the years been sponsoring agricultural advertisements and advertising them for free on Radio Zimbabwe in a quest to revive its ailing farming sector. Tape recording was used to capture the advertised data. Structured and unstructured interviews were administered on ten copywriters as well as twenty Zimbabwean farmers in order to understand the nature of the problem under investigation. Consequently, this study analysed the use of rhetoric and linguistic features by copywriters of the Zanu-PF sponsored audio agricultural advertisements aired on Radio Zimbabwe. It was gathered that the copywriters made use of phonological, morphological, syntactic, semantic as well as pragmatic features as rhetoric.
Minor production difficulties termed slips of the tongue have been investigated as possible clues to the way our linguistic knowledge may be organised within the brain. Slips of the tongue tell us about the structure and organisation of the mental dictionary, the storage house of all the words a speaker of a language knows. This edition explains how words are stored in the mental lexicon using evidence from Shona slips of the tongue. It emphasizes that words are not stored independently in the mental lexicon, but in relation to each other. This implies that words in the mind are linked together in a gigantic multi-dimensional way, whereby every item is attached to many others. This edition proves beyond doubt that words are stored in the mental lexicon on the basis of some phonological, semantic and also syntactic information. This book will enhance our understanding of the organisation of the mental lexicon, and anyone who is interested in lexical storage will enjoy it and get a good deal of information out of it as well.
In this book, we deal with an ecstatic eruption of spirit possession among Christians, who judge it indigenous. It is not new that active Christian prophets turn out to be indigenous spirit mediums, healers and/or diviners. Here, we take serious the implication that the Shona spiritual worldview of Mwari is carried into Christianity unchanged and that the Spirit that inspires Shona traditional spirit mediums is exactly the same Spirit that is operational in the popular African Christian churches of the Spirit. Thus, becoming Christian does not mean that one is no longer a traditionalist. The spirit medium in this event links and equates Jesus to Yawe, the God of the Jews, so also of Christians and to Mwari, the only God there is according to the Shona. The oracle had it that worshiping him through the name of Jesus, as Christians do, is equally efficacious as praying to him through patriarchs- the damned-by-Christianity ancestor cults. We suggest in this analysis that Mwari is the translated Hebrew name Yhwh, and that Yowe, the Shona’s cry for help, is the untranslated name for the Hebrew Yhwh.
Hellman's works are dealing with issues of gender within a framework that is woman-centered. Her protagonists in these two dramas The Little Foxes (1939) and Another Part of the Forest (1946) are primarily women whose diverse problems are all related to areas and themes concerning women. She extensively deals with diverse themes of sexism and racism and oppression from patriarchal culture she had experienced throughout her life. Her most recurring themes in her dramas discussed in Literature Criticism are as follows: "the struggle to have money and power of our own, the price of power and money in any way, friendships among women especially the attention of whites to the black servants, the problem of loving men who regard us as less than themselves, sensuality, violence in class struggle. Hellman's dramas represent the female characters who try to defense themselves and protect themselves from the pressures of a patriarchal society and resist on her private and social rights .