The New Sectarianism considers the causes for growing Sunni-Shi'a animosity in countries such as Iraq, Syria, Yemen, Iran, and Saudi Arabia. It illustrates how the two groups perceive one another after the Arab uprisings, how these perceptions have affected Arab life, and how these contestations pose a serious threat to the stability of regional states and to stakeholders in the wider world.
In the Shadow of Sectarianism – Law, Shiism, and the Making of Modern Lebanon
The aim of this thesis is to discover whether the popular reaction to Neil Lennon provides evidence of sectarianism in Scottish football and within wider Scottish society. It begins by introducing the academic debate surrounding the issue of sectarianism in Scotland, before reviewing chosen literature on the subject. Three main areas were studied in relation to sectarianism in Scottish society: the history and construction of sectarianism in Scottish society, the history of Celtic Football Club and the Irish influence at Celtic and ‘otherness'. From the literature, four areas for questioning were developed: sectarianism in modern-day Scottish society; the role of football clubs in representing separate communities; the notion of the 90-minute-bigot; and the Irish- Catholic community in Scotland. Further research was then carried out through interviewing ten participants. The study then presents the results and theories that were developed, concluding with the contention that Neil Lennon was indeed a victim of sectarianism, and how this reflects a distinct sectarian dimension to wider Scottish society.
Present study is based on anthropological fieldwork conducted in 2005-06. This research tries explores the major reasons of sectarian divide in early Muslim society and its expansion to the later period. It also investigates the major causes and consequences of sectarian conflict in district Jhang. The District Jhang among others faced worst nature of sectarian conflict in the history of Pakistan. The sectarianism here in Jhang is a conflict between Shiites and Deobandis. Throughout the last three decades sectarian clashes increased dramatically in Jhang. According to the office records of Jhang District Police Officer (DPO), 123 sectarian clashes were registered in various Police Stations from 1989 to 2002. These clashes produced high uncertainty among inhabitants with large-scale emigration; affected businesses; and unprecedented deaths on both sides. There are different precursors of this sectarian conflict. Among others theological difference; religious leaders’ strife and political patronage; and ethnic identities of the inhabitants are the major determinants of this conflict.
This report is the outcome of a month-long exploratory study on youth work in Northern Ireland regarding sectarian issues. It is an investigation of how sectarianism transfers from generation to generation, and how this often results in cycles of violence. The goal of this exploration was to find out what efforts are being made to combat this cycle at a youth level, and gain a more nuanced understanding of how these efforts can be effective. Data was obtained through literature, structured interviews, and participation and observation in a youth workshop. It is concluded that cross-community contact at a youth level can be an important starting point, but needs to be expanded on. Difficult conversations about contentious issues need to be had. This report will analyze the techniques that go into facilitating these conversations and assess how the location of discussion, demographic of those involved, and ability of the facilitator all play an important role.
Sectarian schism has historically been an integral yet a repressed element of Middle East’s political and civic life. However, this element was released into a political vacuum created in Iraq immediately after the war. This study attempts to understand the conditions responsible for this sudden surge and rise of sectarian politics and sectarian violence in Iraq and surrounding countries. For this, could we blame the external and untimely American intervention to enforce a democratic change in the country that was otherwise not ready for it? Middle East witnessed an internal revolution (Arab Spring) in the decade after the war, yet it stands on a worse political crossroad. A peaceful democratic environment in Middle East seems formidable in near future as Syrian struggle for ‘equal representation’ rapidly turns into a deadly sectarian war and spreading across borders. This paper identifies and argues for a combination of three distinguished prerequisites of Middle East, not only responsible for a precipitous rise of sectarianism, yet they also provide strong foundations for sectarianism to potentially become a defining characteristic of the region.
Presenting a novel approach for the study of law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, this book is conveniently divided into concepts and practices, highlighting the discrepancies between the two. It is a valuable study for anyone interested in Jewish law, legal history, sectarianism and communal life.
Non-traditional security treats are those security challenges which are the opposite of traditional security threats. These threats have made the national security landscape more complex and vulnerable than ever before. The advent of 21st century brought many changes in the world. Now along with traditional security threats states have to face non-traditional security threats in shape of terrorism, extremism, sectarianism and ethnic strife, gender discrimination and population explosion, drug trafficking, environmental degradation, arms smuggling etc. In Pakistan Non-traditional security threats exist, which are weakening the roots of Pakistan and also have implications for security. Pakistan is facing terrorism and extremism, sectarianism and ethnic diversity, gender discrimination and population explosion as non-traditional security threats, which not only threaten national security but also threaten human security. Violence increased in Pakistani society due non-traditional security threats and there is need to handle these issues with cooperation and mutual trust among the all institutions.
In view of the recent sectarian clashes in Northern Ireland and in parts of ngland,political commentators believe that Britain is losing the battle against extremists and sectarian mafia by relaxing its counter terror policies. Home Secretary, Theresa May is more disturbed by the re-emergence of extremism and sectarianism in Britain. Prime Minister David Cameron once said his country cannot tolerate Islamic extremism, but notwithstanding his harsh stand against these elements, the Prime Minister eat with them on the same table. Experts view this apologetically adapted policy of the Cameron government as a bigger weakness.The main cause of violent sectarian movements together is fear. Religious extremists are united by fear whether they are Christian, Muslim, or Jew. Terrorist and extremist groups in the UK will adapt a new technique and have also been quick to use new technologies. They are improving their abilities, way of operations and attacks. In future, Britain will face more violence, more terror attacks and more sectarian clashes in Northern Ireland.
Poverty alleviation in the context of this study is the step taken to reduce or remove poverty not only like a lack of food, shelter, medical care, education and employment, but also to eradicate poverty in terms of oppression, deprivation, injustice and marginalization. The major cause of poverty in Uganda has been the “South-North divide” fuelled by poor political leadership that divides people along the lines of politics and ethnicity. Poverty has caused many young people of Northern Uganda to resort to rebellion against the government currently in power. This has led to unending political instability and civil strife most especially in Northern Uganda. The solution is that since “violence has failed, dialogue must be applied”. The issue of ethnicity, tribalism and sectarianism would be addressed by creating an atmosphere of “unity in diversity”, good governance, upholding democratic values and human rights as well as caring for the basic needs of the youth. This could further contribute towards poverty reduction.
The New Phrenology – The Limits of Localizing Cognitive Processes in the Brain
Sustaining the New Economy – Work, Family & Community in the Information Age