Since renewable energies are important sources of electricity generation and rain energy increases power of wind station, this book implies rain effect on wind turbine in areas which both rain and wind exist. Furthermore turbulence is studied to obtain voltage and frequency stability in the presented wind-rain station. Besides new simulation of induction machine is applied to wind-rain station in high voltage sag and all of used wind speeds.
The wind erosion and loss of material in an open storage yard is of very importance. To reduce the erosion and loss fences are provided on the periphery of the yard. The fence has to be properly designed so that the length of the shelter effect has to be large. Along with the length the turbulence created because of the obstruction must also be known to have a proper fence system. In this present study experiments have been conducted to find the length of the shelter effect of the fences in terms of reattachment length. Both solid and porous fences are considered for the study. The porosity is provided as circular holes in the plate. Solid fence i.e., with 0% porosity and 20% porosity are considered for the experimental study. Different gap ratios of 0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 are also tested for the above fences. Numerical studies are done for porosities of 0%, 20%, 25% and 40%. The results of 0% and 20% were validated with the experimental results. The turbulence created was incorporated in numerical studies by using turbulence models. Eight different turbulence models were tested.
Environmental pollution occurs due to release of harmful gases from industrial units. It results in the form of acid rain either wet or dry form. Factories, vehicles, power stations and industries burn fossil fuels and produce harmful gases, comprising sulfur dioxide, or oxides of nitrogen, which become the major course of acid rain. Acid rain sometimes falls in the form of precipitation which can be snow, rain, dew or fog. Dry deposition is absorption of particles such as polluting gases, dust particles and gaseous elements by the surface of the Earth. The pH level of acid rain may be less than 7 but when the concentration of pollutants increases in the atmosphere, it further decreases and strong acids like sulfuric and nitric acid are formed. Acid rain induces visible lesion injury on plant shoots and on other tissues. It also destroys epicuticular wax; reduces photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll contents. Acid rain in plants can considerably reduce plant height, number of leaves, fresh and dry weight contents. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of simulated acid rain on the growth performance of Wheat and Oat crops.
This Meridian Physiotherapy Massager combines theories of classical Chinese therapeutic treatments and modern microelectronic technology to produce a special massage for users. It features 3 levels of personal body shaping and toning to encourage the elimination of fatty tissue with the body. A must-have instrument for home use. Features Multi-function Provides instantaneous and historical data on Inside and Outside Temperature and Humidity, Wind Speed (average and gust), Wind Direction, Weather forecast, Barometric Pressure and Rainfall. Touch screen design Touch screen with a stylus makes it easy to operate. Connect to PC Built-in USB port makes it quick to connect to your PC. Data storage Allows the internal storage pf up to 4080 complete sets of weather data with time and date. Free PC software Easy to install and allows the display of all present weather data with graphic symbols. Thermo-Hygro sensor Measure temperature and humidity and transmits data to the monitor via 433MHz or 868 or 915MHz signals. Pressure history Display pressure history in the form of a bar graph. Weather warnings Mainly warn temperature, humidity, wind-cold, dew point, wind speed, air pressure and rain storm. Solar power The transmitter/sensor array is solar powered and with 2 AA rechargeable batteries. Environmental Low power consumption. Compatibility Support Win2000/XP/Vista/Win7/Win8 Specifications Outdoor data Transmission distance 100m(300 feet) Frequency 433MHZ Temperature range -40°C- 65°C Resolution 0.1°C Humidity 10%-99% Rain volume display 0-9999mm Resolution 0.3mm(rain volume＜1000m), 1mm(rain volume＞1000m) Wind speed 0-160km/h(0-100mph) Measuring interval thermo-hygro sensor 48sec Water proof level IPX3 Indoor data Measuring interval pressure 48sec Temperature range 0°C- 50°C Resolution 0.1°C Humidity 10%-99% Resolution 1 % Measuring range air pressure 300-1100hPa Accuracy +/-3hpa under 700-1100hpa Resolution 0.1hpa Alarm duration 120sec Power consumption Base station 2 x AA batteries Remote sensor 2 x AA batteries Base station size 74 x 45cm Remote sensor size 17.2 x 12cm Weight 2.18kg Package Size 47.5 x 14.5 x 37.5cm Package Include 1 x base station, 1 x transmitter unit, 1 x wind direction sensor, 1 x wind speed sensor, 1 x rain gauge, 1 x USB cable, 1 x software, 1 x stylus, 1 x manual
The atmospheric turbulence effect on free-space optical (FSO) communications is one of the biggest problems that face FSO systems. Atmospheric turbulence is the fluctuations of the signal due to the changing of refractive index which results from those air particles which are not homogonous and are affected by temperature, pressure, altitude and wind. In this book, different proposed modulation and forward error techniques are applied to decrease the severe effect on bit error rates due to atmospheric turbulence. Two channels models of atmospheric turbulence are used: log-normal channel which represents small distances (i.e. less than 100 m) and negative-exponential channel which represents long distances up to several kilometers. The obtained results demonstrated the superior performance of avalanche photodiode over positive-intrinsic-negative (PIN) receivers with the use of concatenated Reed Solomon codes. Further, it is found that, forward error correction upgrades uncoded FSO to gain a working-distance advantage of a few kilometers.
Born in Birmingham in 1783, David Cox was destined to become a major figure in the linked worlds of landscape painting and watercolour painting in the first half of the nineteenth century. This illustrated volume focuses attention on Cox, filling in the details of his biography and illuminating his contributions to British landscape painting.