The content of the Work is aimed at the topical issue - integration of increasing infeed of wind power into a power system, in particular its impact on the transmission networks and electricity market. In power system development horizons where forward-looking planning tasks are formed, proper instruments that are able to assess those impacts in progressive stages, comprehensive understanding of the impacts on the entire system operation, electricity markets as well as generating and transmission infrastructural requirements are indispensable for proper decisions of policy makers and planners. The main part therefore focuses on methods and elaboration of approaches for bulk wind power production modelling and simulation primarily intended for infrastructural planning purposes, while technical/economic as well as regulatory aspects of the environment are taken into consideration. The research is carried out within the framework of the European Energy Research Alliance (EERA), Joint Research Programme on Smart Grids, Transmission Planning with the main target focusing on R&D of the next generation of smart grid technologies and system development.
Electrical power is the most widely used source of energy for our homes, work places and industries. Population and industrial growth have led to significant increases in power consumption over the past three decades. Natural resources like coal, petroleum and gas that have driven our power plants,industries and vehicles for many decades are becoming depleted at a very fast rate. This serious issue has motivated nations across the world to think about alternative forms of energy which utilize inexhaustible natural resources. Renewable energy like solar, wind, and tidal currents of oceans is sustainable, inexhaustible and environmentally friendly clean energy. Due to all these factors, wind power generation has attracted great interest in recent years. Undoubtedly, wind power is today’s most rapidly growing renewable energy source. Many of the new, large turbines being produced are variable speed turbines,which use doubly fed induction generators (DFIG). These are induction generators which have their stator and rotor independently excited. Turbines of this type are becoming increasingly popular, because the converters required to control them are cheap and subject to less losses.
The grid codes require taking into account the reactive power of the wind farm/park in order to contribute to the network stability, thus operating the wind farm as active compensator device. This book gives a comparative study of stabilizing wind farms using flexible ac transmission systems (FACTS) units like the (Static Synchronous Compensator) STATCOM and the variable speed wind turbines like the Doubly Fed Induction Generators (DFIGs) during wind speed change and grid fault. Both systems can provide reactive power to the wind farms during dynamic and transient conditions. Simulation analyses were carried out in laboratory standard simulation software called power system computer aided design/electromagnetic transient including DC (PSCAD/EMTDC). The simulated results show that the wind farms could be effectively stabilized with both systems. However, the cost is reduced with the DFIGs system because, apart from generating electric power during steady state,it can also provide reactive power through its frequency converters to stabilize the wind farms without the need of an external reactive power compensation units like the STACOM.
Electricity is basic need for the population and the economy. In Ethiopia, most rural and urban communities do not have access to electricity. The country power utility uses extension of power grids and installation of diesel generators as the only options. The implementation of small scale wind turbine for electric power generation is feasible alternative to be implemented in the short run. Small wind systems are considered to be those turbines with a generating capacity of less than 100 kW. In this book, small scale wind turbines are selected due to its economical and financial feasibility. The available wind energy in Ethiopia is highly variable, both spatially and temporally. The identification of optimized and feasible small scale wind electric energy supply system; factors affecting energy generation, installation and operation of small wind turbines will indicate possible areas where action can exert significant influence on rural areas economic development. By providing such insight, the findings of this book will form a useful input into the literature and policy implications particularly in off-grid wind power generation and even provoke further studies in the sector.
The research reported in this book is part of a project to develop a remote wireless sensing network for monitoring the health of highway bridges. Remote health monitoring that does not require direct human observation has many advantages in terms of cost and increased productivity. However, bridges that cannot be easily connected to the power grid require alternative means of acquiring power. This book describes the design of a wind energy harvester to power a particular component in the sensor network, the wireless router. The work discussed in this book provides a review of relevant literature and development of a detailed analytical modeling of wind turbine behavior. The analytical model provides key information on sizing generators and choosing appropriate wind turbine dimensions to provide the required amount of power. The analytical model also distinguishes the performance of vertical and horizontal axis wind turbines. The model is verified through design and testing of a first generation prototype and benchmarking of a commercially available turbine. Based on these results, the design of the next generation wind harvesting system is described.
The greatest contribution to researchers, who are working on renewable power generation sources especially on wind energy systems. The author explores different type of power electronic interfaces connected to isolated loads or grid. The book gives complete idea about the different approaches for steady-state analysis of self excited induction generator. The book must read for basic concepts and detail understanding about the possible power electronic interfaces in wind energy systems.
Most of the remote rural areas of Ethiopia are not yet electrified. Electrifying these remote areas by extending grid system is difficult and costly. As the current international trend in rural electrification is to utilize renewable energy resources; solar, wind, biomass, and micro hydro power systems can be seen as alternatives. Among these, wind and solar energy systems are thought to be ideal solution for rural electrification due to abundant solar radiation and significant wind distribution availability nearby the rural community in Ethiopia. This book has been written to satisfy the interest of readers on renewable energy technologies and utilization. The primary reason which motivated the author was to provide some initial information to people who are embarking on a career in the renewable energy technologies and utilization in developing countries like Ethiopia. It is this group of people that the present book is targeted at. This book is organized into six chapters. It covers basic concepts of wind and solar energy technologies, their potential resources and utilization in Ethiopia. Besides it provide thorough discussion on design of hybrid power generation system.
This book is very useful for the researchers who are working on wind, PV or Wind-PV hybrid power plants. Renewable energy from wind turbine and solar photovoltaic are the most environment-friendly type of energy to use. Because of combined benefits of renewable energy and hybrid system, a considerable interest has emerged in ‘renewable hybrid’ energy systems. This book, therefore, provides the case study of Wind, PV and Wind-PV hybrid system in different environmental conditions. The modeling of the system components and power control scheme is done using MATLAB/SIMULINK.
This book focuses mainly on the Wind and photo voltaic hybrid power generation system which are connected to the main grid. The information of the wind system bases on the wind site of EL-ZAFARANA in Hurgada in Egypt. This study investigates the main parameters which are used to define the power quality of the distributed energy resources to be suitable for grid connection.
This book is an outcome of the research carried on Production and Marketing of Wind Power in Tamil Nadu. Wind power installation is the latest mantra in global endeavor to improve the power generation scenario. In India, wind energy has been one of the prominent renewable sources of energy addressing three pressing issues viz. bridging the supply shortages, reducing carbon emissions and enhancing energy security. In India, Tamil Nadu is in the forefront in the field of wind power generation. An analysis on the factors that are responsible for the production of wind power, the cost effectiveness of wind power, the rate of return on investment, marketing practices and problems in production and marketing of wind power is made. Such a study can expose problems and may be useful to the various organizations and Government to provide conducive environment to accelerate the sustained growth of wind power development in the country through suitable policies and guidelines for providing technical help, financial support and various other incentives.
This work undertakes a probabilistic analysis of the current private LUEC - Levelized Unit Energy Cost of electricity produced by large offshore and onshore wind power plants in Italy. The calculations of the implemented LUEC model use factors whose data was collected throughout relevant existing literature on the subject. The calculations are performed using the Monte Carlo method with a number of trials dependent upon the achievement of desired confidence and precision levels for selected statistics of the resulting LUECs’ probability distributions curves. By means of a sensitivity analysis, the dissection of the results of this work points to a major influence of the territorial factor in the onshore energy cost and to a combination of territorial and technological factors in the offshore one. The work also analyses the impacts of the cost necessary to upgrade the electric grid in order to accommodate increasing levels of wind power and of the negative externalities produced by this source on, respectively, the public and the social cost of wind electricity. The incentives systems used by the Italian government to support wind energy are then discussed in light of the results.
Wind energy conversion systems are now occupying important space in the research of renewable energy sources. There is a need for further research on Wind Generators and Power Integration Topologies. In this work we are using Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) for wind power generation and the behavior of PMSG when subjected to different wind speeds is being studied in MATLAB. This also provides a comparison of different power converter topologies used in Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS).
The primary task of a wind turbine is to generate electricity from the wind and to supply the produced power to the user. Control of a wind turbine is an integral part of the wind power generation system for proficient operation of the wind turbine, to ensure the maximum power production and finally, maximum energy capture from a wind turbine system. In order to avoid problems at installation, it is required to test the power electronics and study the performance of the controller in a laboratory environment. The aim of this book is therefore to propose and validate maximum power point control strategies for wind turbine and most importantly, to develop a prototype of a small wind energy conversion system that emulates the steady state and dynamic behavior in a laboratory environment.
In this book, various problems of wind power and energy storage under market environments have been resolved. In deregulated industry, the electricity market was divided into submarkets for different services: (1) Markets for energy services and (2) Markets for frequency control. Accordingly, the economic operation of independent Battery Energy Storage System (BESS), and then combined Battery Wind Generation Systems (BWGS) in a real-time market have been presented. In addition, we have proposed a novel scheme for BES in order to reduce the cost of wind power assuming a frequency control market.