The content of the Work is aimed at the topical issue - integration of increasing infeed of wind power into a power system, in particular its impact on the transmission networks and electricity market. In power system development horizons where forward-looking planning tasks are formed, proper instruments that are able to assess those impacts in progressive stages, comprehensive understanding of the impacts on the entire system operation, electricity markets as well as generating and transmission infrastructural requirements are indispensable for proper decisions of policy makers and planners. The main part therefore focuses on methods and elaboration of approaches for bulk wind power production modelling and simulation primarily intended for infrastructural planning purposes, while technical/economic as well as regulatory aspects of the environment are taken into consideration. The research is carried out within the framework of the European Energy Research Alliance (EERA), Joint Research Programme on Smart Grids, Transmission Planning with the main target focusing on R&D of the next generation of smart grid technologies and system development.
The destructive phenomenon of global warming is developing to more critical and obvious index that causes the melting of polar ice caps and higher sea levels resulting in less land for an increasing population, along with the severe changes in climate. Essentially, the growth of this harsh trend is primarily due to the increase of the greenhouse gases concentration from burning of the fossil fuels. So, traditional approach of producing energy to fulfill the human demand is no longer appropriate; meanwhile, inception of wind energy electrical power systems will be the alternative technologies to bring a better future for all mankind. This book provides a comprehensive explanation of the wind energy potential evaluation technique and a robust sensorless MPPT controller for variable speed PMSG wind turbine stand-alone system modeled in Matlab/Simulink environment which shows the feasibility of the technologies compared to the conventional electrical power generation. The study of the WECS will assist the professionals in wind electrical power generation system, global academic researchers, industrial engineers, or those who may consider in implementing this system
This book is very useful for the researchers who are working on wind, PV or Wind-PV hybrid power plants. Renewable energy from wind turbine and solar photovoltaic are the most environment-friendly type of energy to use. Because of combined benefits of renewable energy and hybrid system, a considerable interest has emerged in ‘renewable hybrid’ energy systems. This book, therefore, provides the case study of Wind, PV and Wind-PV hybrid system in different environmental conditions. The modeling of the system components and power control scheme is done using MATLAB/SIMULINK.
Electrical power is the most widely used source of energy for our homes, work places and industries. Population and industrial growth have led to significant increases in power consumption over the past three decades. Natural resources like coal, petroleum and gas that have driven our power plants,industries and vehicles for many decades are becoming depleted at a very fast rate. This serious issue has motivated nations across the world to think about alternative forms of energy which utilize inexhaustible natural resources. Renewable energy like solar, wind, and tidal currents of oceans is sustainable, inexhaustible and environmentally friendly clean energy. Due to all these factors, wind power generation has attracted great interest in recent years. Undoubtedly, wind power is today’s most rapidly growing renewable energy source. Many of the new, large turbines being produced are variable speed turbines,which use doubly fed induction generators (DFIG). These are induction generators which have their stator and rotor independently excited. Turbines of this type are becoming increasingly popular, because the converters required to control them are cheap and subject to less losses.
Electricity is basic need for the population and the economy. In Ethiopia, most rural and urban communities do not have access to electricity. The country power utility uses extension of power grids and installation of diesel generators as the only options. The implementation of small scale wind turbine for electric power generation is feasible alternative to be implemented in the short run. Small wind systems are considered to be those turbines with a generating capacity of less than 100 kW. In this book, small scale wind turbines are selected due to its economical and financial feasibility. The available wind energy in Ethiopia is highly variable, both spatially and temporally. The identification of optimized and feasible small scale wind electric energy supply system; factors affecting energy generation, installation and operation of small wind turbines will indicate possible areas where action can exert significant influence on rural areas economic development. By providing such insight, the findings of this book will form a useful input into the literature and policy implications particularly in off-grid wind power generation and even provoke further studies in the sector.
ABSTRACT The demand for electric energy is increasing day by day that has resulted in exploration of more and more alternate energy sources. Among the available alternate energy sources, wind energy, solar energy and fuel cells have drawn considerable attention. Further, all of these alternate energy sources are also of renewable nature. Among the mentioned alternate energy sources, wind power generation systems have been the most cost competitive alternative among all the environmentally clean and safe renewable energy sources in the world. Both fixed-speed squirrel-cage induction generator and variable speed double fed induction generator have been proposed in the literature for wind turbine generation technology. Since the direction and speed of winds may vary from location to location and time to time, the variable speed wind turbine technology offers inherent advantages over the fixed-speed one. The doubly fed induction-generator (DFIG) is used in tandem with the wind turbine to produce electric energy. The DFIG with the help of the two back to back converters: rotor side and grid side converters, is able to deal with wide variation of wind speed.
The research reported in this book is part of a project to develop a remote wireless sensing network for monitoring the health of highway bridges. Remote health monitoring that does not require direct human observation has many advantages in terms of cost and increased productivity. However, bridges that cannot be easily connected to the power grid require alternative means of acquiring power. This book describes the design of a wind energy harvester to power a particular component in the sensor network, the wireless router. The work discussed in this book provides a review of relevant literature and development of a detailed analytical modeling of wind turbine behavior. The analytical model provides key information on sizing generators and choosing appropriate wind turbine dimensions to provide the required amount of power. The analytical model also distinguishes the performance of vertical and horizontal axis wind turbines. The model is verified through design and testing of a first generation prototype and benchmarking of a commercially available turbine. Based on these results, the design of the next generation wind harvesting system is described.
The grid codes require taking into account the reactive power of the wind farm/park in order to contribute to the network stability, thus operating the wind farm as active compensator device. This book gives a comparative study of stabilizing wind farms using flexible ac transmission systems (FACTS) units like the (Static Synchronous Compensator) STATCOM and the variable speed wind turbines like the Doubly Fed Induction Generators (DFIGs) during wind speed change and grid fault. Both systems can provide reactive power to the wind farms during dynamic and transient conditions. Simulation analyses were carried out in laboratory standard simulation software called power system computer aided design/electromagnetic transient including DC (PSCAD/EMTDC). The simulated results show that the wind farms could be effectively stabilized with both systems. However, the cost is reduced with the DFIGs system because, apart from generating electric power during steady state,it can also provide reactive power through its frequency converters to stabilize the wind farms without the need of an external reactive power compensation units like the STACOM.
Most of the remote rural areas of Ethiopia are not yet electrified. Electrifying these remote areas by extending grid system is difficult and costly. As the current international trend in rural electrification is to utilize renewable energy resources; solar, wind, biomass, and micro hydro power systems can be seen as alternatives. Among these, wind and solar energy systems are thought to be ideal solution for rural electrification due to abundant solar radiation and significant wind distribution availability nearby the rural community in Ethiopia. This book has been written to satisfy the interest of readers on renewable energy technologies and utilization. The primary reason which motivated the author was to provide some initial information to people who are embarking on a career in the renewable energy technologies and utilization in developing countries like Ethiopia. It is this group of people that the present book is targeted at. This book is organized into six chapters. It covers basic concepts of wind and solar energy technologies, their potential resources and utilization in Ethiopia. Besides it provide thorough discussion on design of hybrid power generation system.
A comprehensive review of state-of-the-art approaches to power systems forecasting from the most respected names in the field, internationally Advances in Electric Power and Energy Systems is the first book devoted exclusively to a subject of increasing urgency to power systems planning and operations. Written for practicing engineers, researchers, and post-grads concerned with power systems planning and forecasting, this book brings together contributions from many of the world's foremost names in the field who address a range of critical issues, from forecasting power system load to power system pricing to post-storm service restoration times, river flow forecasting, and more. In a time of ever-increasing energy demands, mounting concerns over the environmental impacts of power generation, and the emergence of new, smart-grid technologies, electricity price forecasting has assumed a prominent role within both the academic and industrial arenas. Short-run forecasting of electricity prices has become necessary for power generation unit schedule, since it is the basis of every maximization strategy. This book fills a gap in the literature on this increasingly important topic. Following an introductory chapter offering background information necessary for a full understanding of the forecasting issues covered, this book: Introduces advanced methods of time series forecasting, as well as neural networks Provides in-depth coverage of state-of-the-art power system load forecasting and electricity price forecasting Addresses river flow forecasting based on autonomous neural network models Deals with price forecasting in a competitive market Includes estimation of post-storm restoration times for electric power distribution systems Features contributions from world-renowned experts sharing their insights and expertise in a series of self-contained chapters Advances in Electric Power and Energy Systems is a valuable resource for practicing engineers, regulators, planners, and consultants working in or concerned with the electric power industry. It is also a must read for senior undergraduates, graduate students, and researchers involved in power system planning and operation.
In this book a dynamic models have been developed for the following: variable speed wind energy conversion systems and power electronic interfacing devices. These dynamic models are suitable for both detailed fast transient and large time scale performance evaluation studies. They can be used to expedite the research processes in the related alternative energy areas, such as system control, performance optimization studies and diagnosis. One of the original points is that this work is the use of a new the fault detection and isolation method (FDI). The proposed method avoids the exploration of all the combinations for its application to the diagnostic of this system operation. The causal paths are used to generate the analytical redundancy relations (ARR) at each computation step based on the constitutive and structural junction relations. This is shown through an algorithm for monitoring the system by sensors placements on the corresponding bond graph model.
The major concern for every electrical utility is the ability to provide reliable and uninterrupted service to their customers. Load forecasting is an important component for power system energy management system. Precise load forecasting helps the electric utility to make unit commitment decisions, reduce spinning reserve capacity and schedule device maintenance plan properly. Besides playing a key role in reducing the generation cost, it is also essential to the reliability of power systems. There are three types of load forecasts: short-term, medium-term and long-term. This book focuses on study of short term load forecasting. Long-term demand forecasting presents the first step in planning and developing future generation, transmission and distribution facilities. In this book study of a real sample (Shiraz power distribution network) for forecasting load growth is done, also evaluated various compensation methods from perspectives of long-term load forecasting.
In this book shows a novel control approach of a three phase grid connected wind energy conversion system, incorporating a maximum power point tracker for dynamic active power generation jointly with reactive power compensation of distribution utility systems has been presented. Thus the five level multilevel inverter topology were chosen based on what has gone before, even if that topology may not be the best choice for the application. Several multilevel voltage source inverters and their modulation topologies are introduced. The cascaded-inverter with separated dc sources is discussed in detail with results to verify the proposed concepts. The improved capabilities of the grid-connected WECS to rapidly exchange active power with the electric system, simultaneously and independently of the reactive power exchange, permit to greatly enhance the operation and control of the electric system.
Large-scale demand and capacity-mix optimization models for power generation expansion planning have been in use in so many countries of the world with considerable success. The application of these models to a developing country in most cases is hampered by lack of requisite database in those Countries. In addition, their electricity generation expansion planning is dictated by a linearly rising demand, coupled with a considerable extent of suppressed demand, thereby necessitating a rapid expansion drive. All these peculiarities, along with the diverse technology and emission requirements call for specific modeling framework for the application of the models in a developing country. This thesis attempt to address this need with vivid case studies of the Nigerian power system, using basic modeling approaches and some selected large-scale models popularized by the International Atomic Energy Agency.
The primary task of a wind turbine is to generate electricity from the wind and to supply the produced power to the user. Control of a wind turbine is an integral part of the wind power generation system for proficient operation of the wind turbine, to ensure the maximum power production and finally, maximum energy capture from a wind turbine system. In order to avoid problems at installation, it is required to test the power electronics and study the performance of the controller in a laboratory environment. The aim of this book is therefore to propose and validate maximum power point control strategies for wind turbine and most importantly, to develop a prototype of a small wind energy conversion system that emulates the steady state and dynamic behavior in a laboratory environment.